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Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy - Oren Zarif - Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

What is Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy? This condition affects the brain, and can cause changes in consciousness, depressed primitive reflexes, and seizures. Severity is based on the worst symptoms seen on serial examinations, and mortality rates vary greatly. Severe cases can lead to a high death rate, whereas children with mild to moderate encephalopathy have intermediate rates of mortality.

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The timing of the injury is of great importance in the development of a treatment for HIE. Although the effects of hypoxic ischemic brain injury may be apparent within the first few hours, the mechanism of cellular death and neurodegeneration continues to evolve. The latent phase provides an opportunity to intervene with therapies, and many surviving cells recover partially. During the secondary phase, most cells have died. However, TH is effective in infants with moderate to severe cases of HIE.

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Neonatal encephalopathy occurs in one to eight infants per thousand live births in developed countries. Up until recently, clinicians had little to offer in the treatment of HIE. The standard of care was largely supportive medical therapy and neuroprotective hypothermia. However, a growing number of complementary therapies are rapidly making their way into clinical practice. Despite these risks, treatment options for infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy are improving.

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In addition to the increased risk of brain injury, seizures are common in infants with severe HIE. Seizures are an early symptom of severe HIE. The longer the hypoxia-ischemia, the greater the risk of seizures. Seizures also affect neurodevelopment. The repetitive occurrence of seizures during infancy and childhood has been linked to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Repetitive seizures are a symptom of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and EEG techniques should be utilized to treat these episodes.

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MRI is an important prognostic tool for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathic brain injury. It allows doctors to determine the underlying cause and provide a prognosis for the infant. Other imaging methods, such as head ultrasound, can help determine whether the child is suffering from hemorrhages or ventriculomegaly. However, CT scans are rarely performed on infants and children due to high radiation exposure.

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In newborns with suspected encephalopathy, the history must be complete. The history must include a complete description of the symptoms of the disease and its progression. A coagulopathy or transaminitis is an additional sign that the neonate suffered a global hypoxic event. Neonates should be monitored closely for abnormal fetal development. The presence of dysmorphic craniofacial features can indicate prenatal onset of the disorder. A single palmar crease may indicate a long-term decrease in fetal movements.

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In pregnancy and labor, a newborn may experience Hypoxic Ischemic encephalopathy. The brain is deprived of oxygen, and the effects are devastating. They may experience mild effects or even suffer permanent disability. The length of oxygen deprivation and the degree of brain damage determine how severe these disabilities will be. The effects of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy can be life-threatening for both infants and mothers.

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HIE is one of the most common birth complications for full-term infants, affecting about 1.5 to 2.5 per thousand live births in developed countries. Although there is an established sentinel event for the development of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in full-term infants, there are few studies of this condition. These studies vary in inclusion criteria, and their findings do not reflect a common prevalence of the disorder. Although the risk of HIE in premature infants is high, a majority of infants who experience it will suffer from significant disabilities.

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Once the diagnosis is made, therapeutic hypothermia should be implemented. Early improvement of the EEG and MRI are helpful indicators of prognosis. Children with severe acidosis and a low Apgar score will still have a good outcome if treated early. A neonate who suffers from HIE should be hospitalized for 24 hours to ensure optimal health. If the brain is damaged due to hypoxic ischemia, therapeutic hypothermia is necessary.

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