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Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy - Oren Zarif - Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

There are several aspects to consider when designing therapy for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathic (HIE). Timing of injury is critical, and many intracellular mechanisms can contribute to the damage. Many surviving cells partially recover during the latent phase, allowing therapies to intervene. Subsequently, cell death takes place in a secondary phase. In infants with moderate to severe HIE, TH is a promising treatment option.

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In neonates, perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies can occur when the brain receives insufficient amounts of oxygen. The brain is unable to get oxygen-rich blood, leading to damage and disability. The duration and severity of hypoxia determine the degree of disability. While this condition affects most full-term infants, it can also occur in premature babies. The degree of brain damage depends on the severity and area of brain affected.

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Seizures are a common symptom of infants with significant HIE. Seizures increase with severity and duration of hypoxia-ischemia. Seizures may be accompanied by other neurological problems. In addition, excessive seizure activity has been linked to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Repetitive seizures can result in a lower seizure threshold in adulthood. Managing seizures during an infant's life is vital to prevent long-term damage.

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While a rare condition, birth asphyxia is a serious issue. It can result in severe brain damage and even death. Children who survive HIE are more likely to develop Cerebral Palsy or other permanent disabilities. While mild HIE may resolve within 24 hours, treatment must be continued to prevent permanent consequences. If you suspect your infant has HIE, call your doctor right away. In addition, you should have the symptoms evaluated by a pediatrician to determine if any further treatment is needed.

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Infant survivors of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathic (HIE) may have cognitive disabilities, including cerebral palsy and epilepsy. However, despite these devastating consequences, it is possible to detect HIE at an early age with neuroimaging. Infant MRI imaging is particularly useful in determining the severity of HIE. In addition to the clinical examination, MRI provides information about the child's development and the potential for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.

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Although the cause of HIE is still unknown, there are some risk factors that can increase the likelihood of it occurring. Severe pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, severe anemia, and drug-induced suppression can all lead to hypoxia. If these risk factors are present during pregnancy, it may be best to avoid the risk. The best treatment for HIE involves avoiding asphyxia and preventing asphyxia.

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The effects of HIE are unpredictable, but the condition is often fatal within a week. Twenty-five percent of newborns with HIE develop brain damage that may result in physical disabilities or cognitive impairment. Fortunately, a small proportion of HIE survivors experience a positive outcome and will likely recover. Nonetheless, the effects of HIE on a child's health are often not immediately apparent until their development has significantly delayed.

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Prognosis depends on the severity of the encephalopathy and the areas of brain injury. Infants with mild encephalopathy can survive without neurocognitive problems, but severe encephalopathy may result in early death. Neurocognitive outcomes are poor in newborns who survive severe HIE. Fortunately, ongoing neuropsychological screening may help detect neurocognitive impairments early and offer a better chance of a cure.

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Standard neurological examination can detect HIE in the late preterm group. This group includes infants aged 33-35 weeks. The lower gestational age of low-risk infants can mask subtle clinical features. In this age group, low initial arterial pH may be a marker of hypoxic ischemia. This is associated with abnormal cognitive outcome. The signs of HIE vary with the risk of fetal loss, and the symptoms can vary widely between healthy infants and low-risk newborns.

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