Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy - Oren Zarif - Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, or HIE, is a potentially fatal brain disorder in children. It is also called cerebral palsy, and it affects motor, neurodevelopmental, and cognitive functions. The condition is characterized by symptoms that appear between three to four years after birth. The severity of the disease depends on the child's age, and doctors can decide whether it's severe enough to require treatment or not.
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Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating birth complication that affects as many as 1 to 8 neonates per thousand live births in developed nations. Although supportive medical care has been the standard of care for neonates with HIE, complementary therapies and surgery are quickly making their way from basic science to clinical practice. This is good news for families who are concerned about the deterioration of their child's condition.
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HIE is caused by problems in the baby's uterus, delivery, and immediate after birth. While the exact cause is not fully known, various conditions are thought to be responsible for its development. Other causes of HIE include severe prematurity, lung or heart disease, infection, brain trauma, and low blood pressure in the baby. The condition can also be triggered by drug-induced suppression of the respiratory system.
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The most common manifestations of hypoxic ischemic encephalomyelopathy are cerebral ischemia and cerebellar dysfunction in term infants. Symptoms of HIE vary depending on the severity of hypotension and when the brain was developed. In children undergoing perinatal asphyxia, periventricular leukomalacia and germinal matrix hemorrhage are present in about 10% of infants.
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In neonatal patients, the symptoms of HIE may be more severe than in adults. The symptoms of this disease depend on the severity of the condition, and the type of oxygen-deprived blood in the baby's bloodstream. The condition is most likely to affect full-term infants, but it can also affect premature babies. In both cases, the severity of the brain damage and disability depends on the area of the brain that was affected and the length of time the baby was deprived of oxygen.
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The effects of hypoxic ischemic encephalomy are similar to those of other brain injuries. The brain receives too little blood, or there is a severe blockage of the blood supply. In the most severe cases, the brain is unable to receive adequate oxygen and blood flow. In severe cases, a child may experience permanent disability and even death. If left untreated, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy can lead to a lifetime of physical, psychological, and social problems.
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Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied as a biomarker of acute brain injury in patients with hypoxic ischemic encephalomyolysis. However, current evidence on the role of HRV as a biomarker of HIE is mixed. Further systematic review of this relationship is necessary to inform future studies. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to review the evidence and determine if there is a direct correlation between HIE severity and HRV.
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While HIE is a fatal condition, there is hope. Treatments for this disorder include body cooling, known as therapeutic hypothermia, to slow the cellular decay process and limit the long-term impact of HIE. Although the effects of HIE are permanent, the impact on the brain is often not noticed until the child begins to experience developmental delays or mobility issues. It is important to note that treatment for this condition is still in its infancy.