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What is Cerebral Ischemia? - Oren Zarif - Cerebral Ischemia

Brain tissue that is not supplied with adequate blood flow undergoes a condition known as cerebral ischemia. In less than five minutes, brain tissue in this area begins to die. The symptoms of cerebral ischemia range from mild to severe, and the duration of ischemia can vary from seconds to minutes. This condition is also known as transient ischemic attack (TIA).

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If you have experienced a TIA, or if you suspect your child has cerebral ischemia, you should seek medical help immediately. There are no quick fixes. However, if you think about it for a moment, cerebral ischemia can be a permanent condition. During cardiac arrest, the entire brain may be affected. In mass lesions, hemorrhage, or trauma, ischemia may contribute to secondary brain damage.

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Among the available therapies, the most common is thrombolytic agents. While these drugs are highly effective, they also carry risks of hemorrhagic complications. Hence, the therapeutic window for thrombolytic therapy is only three hours. Neuroprotective therapy is another option. Depending on the severity and location of cerebral ischemia, treatment may vary. Thrombectomy may be necessary if the ischemic stroke is a life-threatening condition.

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Cerebral ischemia may be reversible, or it can progress to a life-threatening condition known as cerebral infarction. If not treated, cerebral ischemia can result in severe disability and death. Cerebral ischemia often goes hand-in-hand with angiographic evidence of vessel narrowing. A complete recovery of a stroke patient is not necessary for a diagnosis of ischemic coma, but rapid recovery is indicative of reversal of the ischemic condition.

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Acute cerebral ischemia can result in a range of neuropathologies, including a white matter lesion, cholinergic dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and cytotoxic oedema. Affected patients may also exhibit neuropathology such as white matter lesions, neuronal cell death, and calcium overload. Furthermore, the blood-brain barrier may be compromised. These symptoms are common symptoms of cerebral ischemia and must be managed promptly.

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Scientists have discovered that a-Synuclein, a protein involved in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, can be a therapeutic target. Knocking out a-Syn in rodents reduces infarction and promotes neurological recovery. This protein is phosphorylated by PLK2, a major kinase responsible for a-Syn S129 ubiquitination. Interestingly, mice and rats lacking PLK2 showed improved functional recovery and smaller infarts.

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Delay of cerebral ischemia has many implications for neurologic health. Acute cerebral ischemia may have several consequences, and if not treated, can lead to permanent damage. In severe cases, patients may experience focal neurological symptoms or even loss of consciousness. While treatment for cerebral ischemia is not a cure for SAH, it is a life-saving intervention for brain ischemia. It is a necessary component of a stroke rehabilitation program.

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Untreated heart attacks can cause cerebral ischemia because they slow the flow of blood in the brain. A blood clot can also prevent the blood from reaching the brain. Patients with congenital heart defects are more likely to develop cerebral ischemia due to blood clots. People with sickle-cell anemia are also at risk. These individuals have irregularly shaped red blood cells and a low hemoglobin level, resulting in reduced oxygen-carrying capacity.

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The detection of cerebral ischemia is crucial for the successful management of the patient. This technique enables accurate estimation of the brain area affected by the ischemia with submillimeter spatial and temporal resolution. Furthermore, the high spatial and temporal resolution of the images make it possible to diagnose cerebral ischemia early and prevent it from progressing to a more serious condition. There are no other methods that allow such detailed imaging of brain tissues.

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After the stroke, patients will experience a variety of symptoms, and these can vary from one person to another. Some of the more common symptoms of brain ischemia are difficulty speaking and understanding speech, tingling and decreased sensation in the extremities, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and numbness. Some patients may also experience loss of memory and coordination. Additionally, patients may experience vertigo, loss of consciousness, and urinary incontinence.

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is another diagnostic tool that can be used in the early diagnosis of cerebral ischemia. It can replace CT scans in detecting areas of acute dense ischemia. It can also help to identify areas where collateral blood flow is restricted. However, MRI is less commonly available and takes more time. While MRI is more sensitive than CT, delayed CT angiography is more accurate. When used in conjunction with CT, it may even be more effective than the former.

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