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Wallenberg Syndrome Symptoms and Prognosis - Oren Zarif - Wallenberg Syndrome


The prognosis for patients with Wallenberg syndrome depends on the size and location of the infarction in the brain stem. Patients may experience partial or complete recovery of their symptoms within weeks or months, but the condition can cause significant neurological disabilities. Listed below are some of the most common symptoms and their associated prognosis. Symptoms of the condition include difficulty swallowing, drooping eyelids, and tinnitus.

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The patient presented with a history of severe dizziness and intractable hiccups. Other symptoms included decreased strength in the left leg and arm and decreased temperature sensations on the left side. She had difficulty sitting upright and leaned to the left side. On MRI, the doctor found a lateral hyperintense lesion in the left posterior medulla, which confirmed the diagnosis of Wallenberg syndrome. Although this type of syndrome is rare, it can occur in patients with no symptoms.

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Wallenberg syndrome is often misdiagnosed, especially since MRI findings are typically normal. Although a diagnosis is based on clinical signs and symptoms, early management is critical to saving a patient's life. The symptoms are similar to those of other strokes, but there is a risk of post-stroke dementia, which may require specialized care. The following are the main signs of Wallenberg syndrome:

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Vertebral artery dissection and atherosclerotic occlusion are the most common causes of Wallenberg syndrome. Less common causes are embolism and dissection. A recent clinical-radiology study revealed that a dissection in the vertebral artery, which provides branches to the anterior spinal artery and posterior inferior cerebellar artery, is the most common cause of the condition. Risk factors for vertebral artery dissection include hypertension and smoking. A physician should consider the risk factors for the condition, including the age of the patient.

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Although the infarction in the medulla is not easily detectable with MRI, CT may help pinpoint the location. MRI, on the other hand, is the preferred imaging method for acute strokes, offering better sensitivity and specificity. However, MRI is unreliable in locating infarctions in the medulla. Early clinical examination is essential to make a diagnosis of this syndrome. If MRI is not possible, the patient may have an acute stroke.

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The diagnosis of Wallenberg's syndrome can be made with clinical examination and electrophysiological tests. The disease is rare and the underlying cause is not known. Several strokes can cause Wallenberg's syndrome. In one study, twenty patients were evaluated by electrophysiological techniques and clinical examination. Age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The majority of patients recover to oral feeding within one to two months. This is the primary cause of a diagnosis of the syndrome.

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As a result of its rare nature, many patients with this disease do not show any other symptoms. Symptoms of Wallenberg syndrome vary depending on the location of the infarction. Patients with this condition may present with hiccups, diplopia, or a unilateral posterior headache. Patients with isolated infarction of the nodulus may also experience unidirectional nystagmus and a mild imbalance.

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Medications for Wallenberg syndrome may vary. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the disease and is often time-dependent. A dose of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (TPA) may be given within four to five hours. Optical therapy can also be prescribed for patients with unresolved diplopia. The goal of therapy is to improve the patient's quality of life. If appropriate, physical therapy can be an important part of the treatment process.

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In addition to symptomatic treatment, patients with Wallenberg Syndrome may also undergo neuromuscular electrical stimulation (SM-EMG) for swallowing. A patient with WS may have a delayed swallowing reflex (DSR), and electrophysiological findings of the disorder suggest that it is not a result of a depressed GABAA receptor. The doctor must be able to distinguish between a DSR that is insufficient in the diagnosis of WS.

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While dysphagia and swallowing are common symptoms of WS, the primary underlying cause may be a stroke. A hemispheric stroke can result in a WS that is due to a disruption in the premotor neurons in the NA. Although these findings may have different causes, they are important. WS can also result in speech and language impairments. In fact, it has the potential to lead to permanent brain damage.

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