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  • Writer's pictureOren Zarif

Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Stroke - Oren Zarif - TPA Stroke


TPA, or tissue plasminogen activator, is used to treat strokes in people with large blood clots. While it may temporarily improve symptoms, it has not been proven effective in most cases. Patients with severe strokes who have experienced more than one clot in their arteries should consult their doctor before receiving this treatment. In addition, tPA may cause serious side effects, including bleeding. To help you understand the side effects of tPA, here are a few of the precautions you should take.

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Although age is a known risk factor for poor outcome, tPA has been proven safe and effective in young and middle-aged people with stroke. Although older patients are more likely to experience complications, the effectiveness of intravenous tPA is similar to that in younger patients. However, clinical decision-making for patients with stroke is more complicated in older people due to the patient's age, comorbidities, and preferences. Nevertheless, tPA should be offered to appropriately selected elderly patients, and future clinical trials should take their age into account.

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The combination of tPA and delayed treatment also improved the neurological outcome of patients with tPA-induced stroke. Although delayed treatment may delay neuronal recovery, the combined effect of both tPA and rA2-tPA has the potential to limit the tPA dose's neuronal excitotoxicity. The rA2 tPA complex may also neutralize angiostatin-associated endothelial toxicity. These outcomes may translate to improved vascular remodeling and a better neurological outcome.

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The tPA study has identified several subgroups of patients that are potentially suited for tPA treatment. Patients in this subgroup experienced higher levels of stroke severity and had a greater number of comorbidities. As a result, the results of the study suggest that 0.9 mg/kg of tPA may be the optimal dose for all patients with a stroke. In addition, the tPA treatment is associated with an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage.

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Tissue plasminogen activator is currently the only treatment approved for acute ischemic stroke. Although it is not FDA approved for this use, research has consistently shown that tPA can improve outcomes following ischemic stroke. Despite this, the risks associated with delayed tPA administration include increased mortality, intracranial hemorrhage, and reperfusion injury. The therapy also activates matrix metalloproteases, which may lead to further disruption of the BBB.

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Moreover, it is important to note that tPA can be given to patients in almost any hospital, even if they have not had a prior diagnosis of a stroke. Most hospitals have a neurologist on staff, and a tPA stroke team is often ready to assess a patient with a telemedicine link. Hence, tPA is now available for stroke patients in most hospitals across the U.S.

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Despite these challenges, studies involving thousands of patients have demonstrated that tPA therapy improves outcomes for ischemic stroke. In a recent phase III trial, tPA was administered at 3 and 4.5 hours after onset of the ischemic stroke. Although tPA improved clinical outcomes in a larger number of patients, it still tended to have a higher risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, and mortality in comparison to placebo.

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Nevertheless, physicians are still at risk for medical malpractice lawsuits if they decide to administer tPA to AIS patients. In fact, a systematic review on the relationship between tPA and malpractice has not yet been done. The aim of this review was to assess malpractice cases involving tPA for ischemic stroke patients published in major medical databases. The results were encouraging, but there was a lot of uncertainty and inconsistencies.

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Various drugs have been developed as tPA helpers. Their major mechanisms are to suppress MMP activity and vascular protection. Some have multiple mechanisms; these are summarized below. To understand the mechanism of tPA, you should read the literature. The best one for you is the one that works for you. But before you take the plunge, consult your doctor or physician first. You should know the risks and benefits of any medication.

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Among the factors that can increase the risk of tPA stroke is a patient's current state of health. If the patient has a history of subarachnoid hemorrhage, active internal bleeding, or intracranial hemorrhage, tPA may not be an appropriate treatment. Patients should be checked regularly for signs of major bleeding. If the case has failed to improve the patient's condition, the plaintiff can file a lawsuit against the physician.

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In a mouse model of MCAO, tPA and PDTC combined decreased cerebral blood flow by 30%. APC also decreased brain edema and reduced the number of fibrin-positive cerebral vessels. It was also shown to reduce the infart volume and inhibit MMP-2. The combination of the two treatments significantly reduced hemorrhage and BBB leakage. Interestingly, tPA and PDTC were equally effective in preventing ischemic stroke.

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