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Risk Factors for Lacunar Infarctions - Oren Zarif - Lacunar


The risk factors for lacunar infarctions are very similar to those of other types of ischemic stroke. The most common risk factors are hypertension and diabetes mellitus. These risk factors have been present at comparable frequencies in larger clinical series, such as that reported by Arboix et al. However, there is controversy over whether they are the most common risk factors for lacunar infarctions. In the current study, we will discuss the risks associated with this condition.

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The causes of lacunar infarctions are poorly understood, but include a microatheroma, subintimal deposition of lipids, and proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. Lacunar strokes are typically severe hemiplegia, although there may be milder cases involving only a subcortical region of the brain. Moreover, no cortical findings are present in patients with lacunar infarcts, which makes their detection difficult.

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While the exact mechanism of lacunes is unclear, MRI studies show that they are frequently observed in elderly adults, where they are associated with several risk factors. These factors include increased blood pressure, diabetes, and lipid levels, among others. A subgroup of subjects without lacunes - those who have not experienced a stroke in the past - is at increased risk for cognitive dysfunction, and lower-extremity ischemia. However, further research is needed to determine whether these risk factors are significant as indicators of subsequent stroke.

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In the TOAST method, the researchers determine the type of stroke based on risk factors. However, lacunar strokes are small and don't show up on CT images. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT angiography are more precise and can also be used to determine whether blood vessels in the affected area are blocked or not. The study also identifies factors that increase the risk of lacunar strokes.

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However, the prognosis for lacunar stroke is better in patients with one symptomatic lesion and a single silent lesion. The latter group has a worse prognosis. The research also supports the hypothesis that there are 2 distinct types of lacunar stroke. It was conducted on 339 patients with their first stroke. In addition to improving prognosis, the researchers also identified important factors that may improve patients' quality of life.

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The signs and symptoms of lacunar stroke depend on the area of the brain affected. Different parts of the brain are responsible for different functions. Some of these areas are involved in movement, speech, vision, balance, and sensation. In people with high blood pressure for a long period, multiple lacunar strokes may occur. In these patients, emotional behavior can be severely affected, and dementia may develop. In addition to affecting memory, brain cells may be affected in other areas.

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In patients with suspected lacunar strokes, the affected areas are the basal ganglia, putamen, thalamus, caudate, and internal capsule. The stroke will affect the motor and sensory parts of the brain, causing loss of movement and weakness in the arm or leg. These symptoms may be present in one or both sides of the body, and the face is rarely affected. It's best to seek diagnosis and treatment from a doctor.

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Although the risk for lacunar stroke is lower than that of other types of stroke, it still requires emergency treatment. Treatment depends on the symptoms and the severity of the stroke. If detected early, medicine that restores blood circulation may relieve some of the symptoms. However, it is important to visit a doctor as soon as possible, as the stroke symptoms may last weeks or even months. If severe, the affected individual may require physical rehabilitation and a lifetime of disability.

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There is a small risk of death after a lacunar stroke, and the stroke may occur long after the initial attack. This type of stroke requires extensive autopsy, as autopsy material may be scanty due to the small size of cerebral vessels. In addition, studies on risk factors for lacunar ischaemic stroke have relied primarily on a clinical diagnosis. There is no way to determine whether this type of stroke is more common than others.

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New infarcts of the basal ganglia were rare in patients who had previous infarcts. However, there was a strong association between a history of cerebrovascular disease and new lacunar infarcts. This finding suggests that the two types of infarctions are linked in their risk for occurrence. However, the risk factors for the latter type differ from those for lacunar infarcts.

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