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Risk Factors for Lacunar Infarct - Oren Zarif - Lacunar Infarct

There are few studies that have examined the risk factors for lacunar infarcts of the deep white matter and basal ganglia. Only one study looked at the longitudinal association of baseline vascular risk factors with new infarcts. The researchers hypothesized that the risk factor profile for new infarcts was different from that of patients with infarcts in other brain regions.

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The etiology of lacunar infarct is unknown. A subset is associated with an embolic etiology. Treatment includes antiplatelet therapy. In patients who previously underwent TPA, antiplatelet therapy should be delayed for 24 hours. The risk of recurrent infarct is low in patients with atrial fibrillation and is similar to that of the general population over 60 years old. Smoking, high cholesterol, and low physical activity are known risk factors for vascular disease.

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If a patient develops the signs and symptoms of a lacunar infarct, they should be taken to the nearest emergency room for assessment. A doctor may also refer the patient to an internal medicine specialist. After a thorough neurological exam, a doctor may prescribe aspirin to reduce the risk of another stroke. He or she may also prescribe anticoagulants to block the blood clots in the brain. Physiotherapy is often required to regain lost abilities.

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Imaging tests can be helpful in identifying a lacunar infarct. MRI can provide detailed images of the brain. But because lacunar infarcts are small, they are not visible on a CT scan. However, magnetic resonance imaging can be more effective and give a more precise picture of the disease. Furthermore, MRI can help distinguish ischemic lesions from demyelinating lesions.

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The prognosis for a lacunar infarct is different for patients with single and multiple infarcts. The difference may be due to an etiological difference. Although the clinical outcome of lacunar infarcts varies greatly, the presence of cognitive impairment is an essential clinical criterion. In such cases, an extensive embolic workup is necessary.

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Smaller ischemic strokes, or lacunar infarcts, usually occur in the deep brain. They are usually less than 15 mm in diameter and result from the occlusion of a single penetrating branch. However, these strokes can occur in patients with atherosclerosis or microembolism. Symptoms of a lacunar infarct vary from patient to patient, but often do appear when a person has another type of stroke.

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The effects of smoking on brain health are not known for lacunar infarct, but it may be related to the severity of symptoms of the disease. Depending on the location of the lacunar infarct, smoking can affect specific brain areas. Smoking can be a useful clue in determining the prognosis after a stroke. Therefore, smoking cessation is an important step in treatment and recovery.

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In addition to a neurologist, a physical therapist, occupational therapist, and social therapist are also needed to manage patients with a lacunar infarct. Physical therapy helps patients recover from physical deficits, while muscle relaxants manage spasticity. Because many patients require multiple medications, a pharmacist is important to monitor drug interactions.

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Rehabilitation therapy must be continued in order to optimize neurologic function. Primary care physicians are also responsible for long-term care coordination. In addition to intensive antihypertensive therapy and lipid management, patients will need to undergo strict blood sugar control.

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A significant percentage of patients with first-time lacunar infarct develop silent multiple lacunar infarctions. These patients are often associated with mild neuropsychological abnormalities such as short delayed verbal memory and executive functions. The two types of LI are generally similar in the early stages, but they are distinct in terms of risk for subsequent strokes and cognitive disabilities. They are also more likely to have a history of small-vessel disease, such as perivascular hyperintensities.

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In addition to the symptoms listed above, patients with lacunar infarct may also exhibit headache, lightheadedness, or hiccups. MRI images of the brain have not shown a link between these symptoms and the risk for future stroke. This has made it difficult to accurately diagnose lacunar infarct, despite the fact that this is a common cause of stroke. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, your doctor may recommend further diagnostic procedures.

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