Periventricular Leukomalacia - Oren Zarif - Periventricular Leukomalacia
Among the most common forms of brain injury in preterm infants, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) results in severe cognitive and neurologic deficits. In fact, 80% of preterm infants with PVL have at least some form of cognitive impairment. This disease is associated with microgliosis and white matter degeneration. Subplate neurons, which play a crucial role in the early organization of the cerebral cortex, may be affected.
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Diagnostic tests are available for periventricular leukomalacia. The first step in identifying a child with this condition is to review the child's medical history. An MRI may be indicated if there are known risk factors. Otherwise, frequent developmental assessments are recommended. A baby who develops severe impairments due to periventricular leukomalacia may require special care after being discharged from the hospital.
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The severity of periventricular leukomalacia is largely dependent on the severity of the condition. Mild cases may show no symptoms at all. Severe cases may present with neurological signs months after birth. Cerebral palsy is one of the most common symptoms, resulting in stiffness in the legs and other development and learning difficulties. Hearing loss, vision problems, and coordination problems are also common. The condition is often difficult to detect and is best treated by a medical professional.
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Preterm infants may have periventricular leukomalacia, an ischemic brain injury that results in periventricular cyst formation and cavitation. This disease is common in premature infants and is associated with intellectual disability, visual disturbances, and cerebral palsy. A physician may be able to detect PVL using magnetic resonance imaging or cranial ultrasonography. It is important to recognize this condition early to prevent it from worsening.
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A diagnosis of PVL will depend on the severity of the brain damage. In some cases, cerebral palsy is a sign of PVL, while in other cases, cerebral palsy is the complication of PVL. Both conditions can be life-threatening, and if left untreated, can lead to permanent disability. In some cases, the symptoms of PVL may be obvious months after birth.
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Fortunately, there are treatments for PVL. This condition is caused by a decreased flow of blood and oxygen in the brain. This may lead to damage to glial cells, which support neurons throughout the nervous system. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable to this condition because of its increased frequency of interaction between glial cells and neurons. A patient may experience any or all of the above symptoms. The condition may even require surgical intervention.
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Although it may be difficult for a child to recover from the symptoms of PVL, there are treatments for the disorder. Often, these treatments are aimed at relieving physical symptoms while improving cognitive and neurological conditions. Ultimately, this treatment can help the child's quality of life and prevent further damage. If the condition occurs in a child, proper diagnosis can help save their life. So, periventricular leukomalacia is a condition you should not ignore.
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Infection during pregnancy is known to result in the loss of OL precursor cells in a PVL patient. Furthermore, a mother's infection may trigger inflammatory processes and release of cytokines, thereby causing PVL. Interestingly, these effects may be mediated by endotoxin, a type of bacterial toxin that triggers the release of cytokines. The results of these studies are not conclusive, but they do suggest that infections during pregnancy can trigger PVL.
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Premature infants are at greater risk for developing PVL than full-term infants. Its primary cause is changes in blood flow in the region around the ventricles in the brain. This area is particularly susceptible to injury before 32 weeks gestation, so infection during the pregnancy can also be a factor. The risk is higher in premature infants with intraventricular hemorrhage. Even though there are other causes, the condition is linked to preterm birth and fetal death.