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Periventricular Leukomalacia - Oren Zarif - Periventricular Leukomalacia

Periventricular leukomalacia is the most common type of ischemic brain injury in premature infants. It occurs in the border zone at the ends of arterial vascular distributions and affects the developing brain. Diagnosis of PVL is based on the presence of periventricular cysts and echodensities. This condition is of critical importance because a significant proportion of premature infants with PVL will develop cerebral palsy.

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The white matter in the brain is important for motor function and sends impulses from brain cells in the gray matter. Damage to this white matter reduces these functions. The condition is common in children with cerebral palsy, and there is no cure for it. However, there are several treatments for this condition, and children can live with it successfully with ongoing therapy. In addition to the damage caused by PVL, it can lead to spastic movements, intellectual impairment, and vision problems.

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When PVL affects a child, it can be prevented by taking proper care during birth. Healthcare providers have a duty to provide exceptional care in the delivery room, and it is their responsibility to maintain the standard of care they offer. However, some birthing situations are more challenging than others, and healthcare providers need to take utmost care to avoid a traumatic injury. If medical malpractice is suspected, families of PVL victims may take legal action through birth injury lawsuits. The compensation won from such lawsuits can provide much-needed resources for your child's care.

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Periventricular leukomalacia symptoms depend on the severity of the condition. While mild cases may not produce any symptoms, more serious cases will manifest several months after birth. One of the most common symptoms is cerebral palsy, which causes stiff muscles in the legs. Children with cerebral palsy also experience developmental and learning problems. Other symptoms of PVL include vision loss and hearing loss. Fortunately, there are several treatments for PVL that can help the affected child lead a normal life.

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There are many possible causes of PVL. It can develop during childbirth if there is a lack of oxygen and blood flow in the baby's brain. Infections inside the mother's womb are also associated with this condition. A woman who has suffered from periventricular leukomalacia may also have cerebral palsy or epilepsy. However, the exact cause is still unknown.

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Another important factor is fetal blood vessels. Because fetal blood vessels are thin-walled, they are unable to maintain adequate blood flow during episodes of decreased oxygenation. Cesarean section and fetal distress both increase the risk for hypotension. Ultimately, the combined effects of these events can cause damage to the blood brain barrier. This barrier consists of endothelial cells that regulate the flow of nutrients to the brain.

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The specific mode of cell death in PVL depends on the severity of white matter injury. In mild cases, apoptosis is the most likely mode of injury. Severe insults, on the other hand, will cause neuronal death by necrosis. In addition to the neurologic effects, PVL may lead to other secondary pathologies, such as periventricular astrocytoma.

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MRI and CT scans are two diagnostic tools for periventricular leukomalacia. MRIs can help doctors identify the extent of the brain damage and can identify bruising or scarring. Similarly, cranial ultrasounds use sound waves to reflect images of the brain and ventricles. This helps the doctors determine if there are any infections, bleeding, or damage to the brain tissue.

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Depending on the severity of the disease, it may have one or more types. Grade I and Grade II PVLs are typically limited to the frontoparietal white matter, and coalesce into spastic diplegia. The third and fourth week after an insult occurs and is characterized by extensive cystic lesions. In this stage, the lesion is extensive and is considered total tissue necrosis. It is also smaller than the hyperechoic zone. The larger cysts may merge into smaller ones, leading to irregular cavitation and a Swiss-chees pattern.

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