Periventricular Leukomalacia - Oren Zarif - Periventricular Leukomalacia
Premature infants are more susceptible to Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL), and as many as 26% of premature infants have some form of PVL. Periventricular Leukomalacia can be fatal, and 75% of premature infants who died shortly after birth did so because they had this disorder. If you think your child has PVL, get a free case evaluation today. It may help you get the proper diagnosis and treatment for your child.
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In addition to periventricular leukomalacia, many other disorders affecting premature infants can result from it, including hydrocephalus, cerebellar disease, and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction. In the United States, an estimated 60,000 infants have a birth weight below 1500 grams. Of these premature infants, 50% show signs of some type of cerebral white-matter injury.
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Some causes of periventricular leukomalacia include certain types of maternal infections. The cause of this disease is unclear, but decreased blood flow in the fetal heart is believed to be a risk factor. Premature birth is one of the most common risk factors for PVL, with infants born at or before 32 weeks at the highest risk. However, the symptoms of the condition may be mild or severe, and treatments depend on the severity.
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Children born with PVL can develop cerebral palsy. Treatment depends on how severe the damage is to the brain. Children with the disorder may develop minimal or severe delays in motor skills, or may even experience seizures. However, ongoing therapy can help them cope with their condition and overcome the symptoms associated with it. There are many possible treatment options for children born with PVL. A comprehensive evaluation will determine the most appropriate treatment for your child.
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Cystic PVL has two main overlapping forms. Cystic PVL shows macroscopic focal necrosis in the white matter. Noncystic PVL develops glial scars. A third type of periventricular leukomalacia is diffuse cerebral white-matter gliosis, which accounts for the majority of white-matter injury in premature infants today.
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If you suspect your child has PVL, your pediatrician should consider the possibility of prematurity. It's one of the leading causes of cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment in premature infants. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging-based neuroimaging techniques have improved diagnostic sensitivity in PVL. With these methods, the involvement of telencephalic gray matter is documented, as well as long tracts in addition to the periventricular white matter. Moreover, PVL patients have hypervascularized cerebral white matter.
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Premature babies are more likely to suffer from PVL than their peers. However, the condition can be treated. Therapeutic hypothermia can prevent cerebral palsy in children who develop the disorder. Taking precautions while pregnant can help reduce the chance of developing PVL in your child. To avoid major health issues, such as periventricular leukomalacia, you should avoid exposure to high-risk substances, including alcohol and drugs, and be sure to have regular checkups with your doctor.
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In addition to causing PVL, maternal/fetal infection can cause the death of OL precursors. Furthermore, endotoxin can cause cytokine release in infant brains. A series of studies indicate that endotoxin is a potential cause of PVL. Therefore, the pathogenesis of PVL is not completely understood. However, a few hypotheses have been derived from the classic neuropathology of this disease. These include free radical injury, cytokine toxicity, and excitotoxicity.
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The most common form of PVL is asymmetrical. Both types of PVL have asymmetric distribution and varying degrees of myelin loss. In both forms, periventricular leukomalacia affects the brain's white matter, and its loss is devastating. It also affects the brain's white matter, which is an important element in the formation of myelin.
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Cystic lesions are usually incorporated into the lateral ventricles by term-equivalent age. This causes the posterior horns to look squared off. Atypical periventricular leukomalacia can also affect the brain's function by impairing nerve signals. The resulting dysfunction of the brain's white matter can lead to stroke, death, or neurological damage. It is important to seek treatment for periventricular leukomalacia as soon as possible.
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Premature infants are at an increased risk of developing PVL. The primary cause of PVL is unknown, but it is believed that abnormal blood flow to the brain during the preterm delivery process can lead to cerebral palsy in the baby. Early rupture of the membranes and infection in the uterus are other factors that may increase the risk of developing PVL. And of course, premature infants have an increased risk of having intraventricular hemorrhage, making it imperative to seek treatment for PVL.