Periventricular Leukomalacia - Oren Zarif - Periventricular Leukomalacia
The onset of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is often delayed in a premature baby. The disorder is characterized by brain damage, including softening and death of brain tissue, and appears to be caused by inadequate blood flow to the inner brain. Babies who had cerebral hemorrhage during delivery are more likely to develop the disorder than those who did not have any prenatal problems. A ruptured amniotic sac is another risk factor for periventricular leukomalacia.
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The earliest signs of periventricular leukomalacia are delayed speech, learning, and developmental problems. Infants with this disorder may experience intellectual impairment ranging from mild to severe. White matter cell loss can interfere with hearing and detecting vibrations. Other symptoms of PVL include cross-eyes, spastic diplegia, and hearing loss. For these reasons, periventricular leukomalacia is important to diagnose early in a child.
Premature babies' periventricular leukomalacia can be prevented by early detection.
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Premature babies lack the ability to regulate blood flow, and this insufficient blood supply can cause hemorrhage. Periventricular leukomalacia can affect any part of the brain, including the eyes, ears, and spine. As a result, babies with this condition are more likely to develop Cerebral palsy.
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Premature babies are at a greater risk for PVL, but any child can be born with this disorder. In general, symptoms will appear by six to nine months of age, including problems controlling movement, developmental delays, and learning disabilities. Seizures can also be a sign of PVL. While there is no cure for this condition, treatment options focus on improving the child's quality of life and minimizing its impact on their future development.
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In order to make a definitive diagnosis of PVL, a periventricular cyst must form. This develops within two to six weeks after the initial injury. This cyst will appear on sonograms as localized lesions. Progressive necrosis of periventricular tissue results in enlargement of the ventricles. By the end-stage, the periventricular leukomalacia has caused the loss of periventricular white matter, and the corpus callosum.
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During the PVL window, OLs predominate in the periventricular region. These cells are vulnerable to free radical-mediated cell death. In PVL, the specific mode of cell death is unknown, but it may be relevant for determining the cause of the periventricular leukoma. In milder cases, apoptosis is the predominant form of neuronal death.
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Although the exact cause of PVL is still unknown, it is a disorder affecting the brain's periventricular white matter. The white matter surrounding the ventricles is heavily involved in motor control. As a result, individuals with PVL commonly show problems with motor coordination. However, this can be difficult to detect in the early stages of the disease.
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However, if a diagnosis is made soon enough, the specific areas affected can be monitored.
Premature infants are at a higher risk of developing PVL than healthy adults. The healthcare team delivering the baby must take proper precautions. They should keep a close watch on the baby's heart rate and be prepared for an emergency c-section if necessary. Babies with this condition are likely to develop cerebral palsy or a variety of developmental delays.
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However, there is no known cure for PVL and the prognosis of the affected baby will depend on the severity of white matter damage in the periventricular region.
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Premature infants with PVL are at increased risk of developing cerebral palsy. Approximately 60% to 100% of those with PVL will also be diagnosed with cerebral palsy. While the cause is unclear, the lack of blood flow to the brain can lead to PVL. In addition, premature infants are more prone to infection during birth. A baby with PVL also has an increased risk of developing intraventricular hemorrhage.