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Periventricular Leukomalacia - Oren Zarif - Periventricular Leukomalacia

A periventricular leukomalacia is an extremely rare but serious form of cerebral palsy. It is a severe form of brain damage that causes cell death and damage to white matter tissues. This condition is often the first symptom of cerebral palsy and is a strong indicator of the severity of the condition. While children with periventricular leukomalacia have extreme impairments, some may not experience any symptoms at all. This is because the severity of symptoms depends on the extent of damage to the white matter.

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This condition is more common in low birth weight and premature babies. Around 20,000 to 30,000 premature babies develop this disease and 7,000 of those born with periventricular leukomalacia will develop cerebral palsy later in life. The symptoms of this condition can include stiff muscles, difficulty walking, seizures, lowered muscle tone, and difficulty with movement. If you suspect your child of having PVL, you should have a newborn brain scan performed to rule out other underlying problems.

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Infants with periventricular leukomalacia have difficulty walking and coordinating their movements, and their intellectual development can be significantly affected. The loss of white matter cells can also affect hearing and the ability to detect vibrations. Another symptom is cross-eyes, also called strabismus. Another complication of this condition is nystagmus, or the inability to control one's eye movements. Fortunately, periventricular leukomalacia can be treated with the appropriate therapies.

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There are two types of periventricular leukomalacia. Noncystic PVL is characterized by microscopic focal necrosis, while cystic PVL is characterized by macroscopic focal necrosis. Noncystic PVL can develop into glial scars. The third form of cerebral white-matter abnormality is diffuse astrogliosis, which accounts for the majority of premature infants today.

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The symptoms of periventricular leukomalacia are often not apparent until the baby is a few months old. Some babies with the condition may develop cognitive problems or even cerebral palsy. The treatment for periventricular leukomalacia may include therapeutic hypothermia. By following these steps, a parent may be able to improve their child's quality of life. If a child has periventricular leukomalacia, he or she may be entitled to legal action.

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Prematurity is the most common cause of white matter injury in premature infants. It can result in periventricular cysts and cavitation. There is no definitive cure for PVL, but early diagnosis and intervention can help children with this condition. Although many premature infants do not develop cerebral palsy, it is important to treat it as early as possible. The goal is to prevent this disorder and make it as manageable as possible.

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In early development, OLs are particularly vulnerable to free radical-mediated cell death. A series of studies suggests that maternal/fetal infections are a contributing factor to the onset of PVL. In periventricular leukomalacia, inflammatory markers of the white matter, and cytokines are released. In PVL, these markers are associated with a cellular imbalance and a reduction of OL survival.

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PVL neuropathology consists of two primary components, called focal and diffuse. The former is localized, resulting in focal necrosis, while the latter involves diffuse injury to OL precursors that develop into mature OLs and form the myelin surrounding the cerebral WM. Peroxisome function is necessary for the survival of myelin. Its neuropathologic sequelae are reduced WM volume and ventriculomegaly.

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Infants with PVL are at high risk of developing cerebral palsy. About 60% to 100% will develop this condition. While the exact cause of the condition is unknown, it is believed to be caused by inadequate blood flow to the area surrounding the ventricles. The area surrounding the brain is particularly vulnerable to injury before 32 weeks of gestation. Infection at the time of delivery may also play a role. In addition to premature babies, women who are pregnant or have had an intraventricular hemorrhage increase their risk of developing PVL.

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