Neuroimaging and Occupational Therapy for Frontal Lobe Pathology - Oren Zarif - Frontal Lobe Damage
The frontal lobe is the anterior part of the brain located inside the skull, behind the forehead. These parts of the brain control a range of functions, from movement and intelligence to language and personality. Damage to these areas can have drastic consequences on behavior and personality. Frontal lobe damage can be transient or permanent, and any type of brain injury can lead to frontal lobe damage. It is also connected to other areas of the brain, such as the limbic node, which controls emotions and behavior.
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Neuroimaging is important for determining the morphological substrate of frontal lobe damage. CT of the brain is more informative in post-traumatic conditions and in meningeal hematomas, while cerebral MRI detects tumors and degenerative changes in the frontal lobe. Duplex MRI of the brain can also identify zones of chronic cerebral ischemia or blood flow disorders. These tests can help doctors determine whether a person has frontal lobe damage and how to best treat it.
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An antisaccade test can also be performed to assess frontal lobe injury. In this test, a person must ignore a flashing cue in order to look in an opposite direction. The goal of the antisaccade test is to inhibit prepotent response in an individual and plan and execute a movement that goes against the instinctual response. Typically, a patient with frontal lobe damage will perform worse on the antisaccade test than someone who has no frontal lobe damage.
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The primary goal of physical and occupational therapy is to help individuals with frontal lobe damage perform the daily activities they have been accustomed to doing. Physical therapists aim to strengthen the affected side while increasing neuroplasticity. Occupational therapists focus on helping an individual become as functional as possible. The person with frontal lobe damage will often have difficulty in performing daily activities and caring for themselves. However, there is hope. Despite the fact that it can be challenging to rewire the brain, there are several types of therapy available.
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While most frontal lobe pathology patients perform well on traditional memory tests, they may not be able to retain or combine events. Their ability to identify sources of information and compare two pieces of information are often impaired. This may lead to a variety of difficulties including source memory and recency memory. Nonetheless, the most common symptoms of frontal lobe damage include:
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The severity of the symptoms can vary. Minor injuries may not be obvious to the casualty, but even small head injuries can lead to permanent brain damage. Depending on the severity of the injury, recovery can take months, even years. A severe frontal lobe injury may never fully recover. However, even the most minimal injury can result in lasting consequences, which is why it is critical to seek treatment as soon as possible.
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In addition to a broader range of psychological problems, frontal lobe dysfunction has been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Studies using neuropsychological tests, neurological examination, and EEG have demonstrated a link between impulsive aggression and prefrontal lobe dysfunction in individuals with aggressive disorders. Although the actual number of aggressive behaviour may be small, this increased risk is still significant and is still awaiting prospective studies.
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The effects of frontal lobe damage vary, with the severity of the injury largely dependent on age. The frontal lobe is the last part of the brain to fully develop, and therefore any damage to this area will result in long-term and lifelong disabilities. There is no one cure for frontal lobe damage, but the right treatment can make all the difference in your life. If you are diagnosed with frontal lobe damage, contact your local healthcare provider for more information about the various treatments available.
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A weakened frontal lobe can affect your ability to walk, talk, and maintain posture. This can also lead to difficulty with empathy and self-centeredness. A person with lobe damage may also show signs of atypical lip movements, known as apraxia. In some cases, apraxia is a sign of frontal lobe damage. The symptoms of this condition include atypical facial movements, a lack of self-awareness, and difficulty reading and writing.
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Damage to the frontal lobe can increase risk-taking and impulsivity. Impulsivity and risk-taking are closely related and are both linked to response disinhibition. Impulsive people make decisions without self-control, while risk takers jump at the chance to gain a reward. Some studies have measured these behaviors during gambling tasks. The effects of frontal lobe damage on risk-taking are significant in children and adults suffering from autism.