Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy - Oren Zarif - Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
Although the causes of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) are not well understood, there are several factors that may contribute to the onset of the disease. These factors can include premature birth, problems immediately after birth, and a lack of adequate oxygenation in the environment. While the specific cause of HIE has yet to be determined, the disease has been linked to reduced lifespans, including cognitive impairment.
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Although the condition is fairly common, it is also associated with a high mortality rate. Approximately one in five survivors experience recognizable cognitive and motor impairment. Although there are no known preventive measures, known risk factors include birth asphyxia and prolonged reduction of cerebral blood flow, such as during placental abruption or hypotension. Despite the severity of HIE, infants may exhibit a variety of symptoms, including floppy and tense appearance, and difficulty feeding.
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The diagnosis of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies is based on neuroimaging techniques, including MRIs. New techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MR spectroscopy (MRI) can also help identify the cause of hypoxia-ischemic encephalopathy. In many cases, a physician must suspect the condition before performing any test. A parent can also recognize signs of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy by watching their infant for changes in cognitive development.
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Although the underlying cause of Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is unknown, it occurs in as many as one to eight out of every thousand live births in developed countries. For decades, clinicians had little to offer infants with HIE but recent breakthroughs have made complementary therapies increasingly popular as standard of care. With the current research, complementary therapies may be the only treatment that successfully prevents or treats HIE.
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Neonatal HIE is the most common cause of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE). However, it can also be caused by infections, genetic conditions, or metabolic syndromes. Although initial hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy may resolve during the neonatal period, in many cases children with HIE will develop neurologic deficits as they mature. The condition is also associated with a wide range of complications.
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The best care for neonates undergoing the treatment of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy involves active management of blood pressure and temperature to avoid excessive fluctuations in brain perfusion and passive circulation. Also, neonatal care should be performed to prevent hypoglycemia, a factor that can cause de novo injury and exacerbate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This is especially important during the neonatal golden hour following delivery.
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The effects of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy are often severe, and it is the most common cause of infant brain injuries. However, HIE can range from mild to moderate, depending on the amount of oxygen the brain receives during birth. And the extent of disability varies from child to child depending on the area of the brain that is affected and the duration of the hypoxic period. So, what are the signs of HIE?
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Perinatal hypoxia is the leading cause of neonatal death. However, hypothermia remains the only treatment for newborns. Combining this therapy with neuroprotective strategies should result in improved neurological outcomes. A neonatal rat model is a useful tool for determining perinatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy. If your child develops this condition, you should seek immediate medical attention.
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A rapid diagnosis of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy is necessary to rule out other causes of the condition. Early recognition of these findings may improve prognosis and may lead to earlier treatment. Acute hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is associated with high blood-brain-barrier permeability, which may be due to a lack of oxygen in the brain. Symptomatic treatment, which is supportive, is crucial.