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  • Writer's pictureOren Zarif

Lacunar Infarction - Oren Zarif - Lacunar

Lacunar infarcts are small noncortical infarcts that originate from the occlusion of a single penetrating branch of a large cerebral artery. Several different causes of these infarcts are considered, including embolism, vasculitis, and infections. Lacunar infarction is the most common type of stroke, and it occurs in approximately 5% of all strokes. Diagnosis of lacunar stroke requires the exclusion of other etiologies of ischemic stroke.

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A physician will ask about your medical history, check your blood pressure, and perform a detailed neurological examination to check for any damage to brain functions. MRIs or computed tomography scans may also be ordered in order to evaluate blood flow in the brain. MRIs, especially diffusion weighted imaging, are more sensitive in identifying a lacunar stroke than a CT scan. MRIs, on the other hand, are the most accurate imaging test for this condition.

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MRI-defined lacunes are often common in older people without a history of stroke. The most important risk factors were age, diastolic blood pressure, and creatinine. However, the differences between subgroups were not so stark as to suggest a different mechanism of disease. MRI-defined lacunes in subjects with no history of stroke were associated with increased risk of lower-extremity and cognitive dysfunction. However, further study is needed to determine whether MRI-defined lacunes serve as effective indicators of subsequent risk of stroke.

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The TOAST method is another way to determine the type of stroke. Researchers use a patient's risk factors to identify lacunar stroke. However, this method is not always correct as some studies of lacunar stroke may be biased by other clinical classification systems. For example, paucity of pathological material can lead to an incorrect diagnosis of lacunar stroke. Furthermore, studies in the animal model of lacunar stroke have revealed that many patients with the disease have embolic sources.

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Although this is a very small sample size, it still makes it difficult to evaluate a correlation between lacunar stroke and cognitive function. To increase the statistical power of a lacunar stroke study, researchers should increase the sample size and follow-up period of these studies. This could be achieved through the creation of an international database, which could be a branch of the Meta VCI Map consortium. While different cognitive tests have been used, there are a variety of differences between studies.

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Aside from the symptoms of the two most common types of lacunar stroke, there are also several specific conditions that can lead to an incomplete recovery. One of these is ataxic hemiparesis, where the limb is disproportionately affected to its strength. A second type, homolateral ataxia, is similar to ataxic hemiparesis, but affects the leg, rather than the arm. The onset of a lacunar stroke usually occurs in a few hours. A few patients may develop postictal status and facial weakness.

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While some people may experience complete recovery after a lacunar stroke, most people will be permanently disabled. Depending on how severe the brain damage is, patients may require several months of physical rehabilitation. Despite the many treatments available, many people suffering from this type of stroke will require physical therapy to regain their ability to perform daily tasks. If the symptoms do not resolve within these months, the symptoms may last for months or even years. If left untreated, they may require further surgery, which may result in permanent disability.

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While lacunar stroke is less common than hemorrhagic stroke, it is no less serious. It can be attributed to several factors, including high blood pressure and diabetes. Chronic high blood pressure can narrow arteries, which make it easier for blood clots and cholesterol plaques to block the flow of blood. When this happens, the brain cells cannot receive oxygen, and they begin to die. If the stroke is not detected and treated in a timely manner, it can result in significant physical and cognitive disabilities.

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Smoking is a major risk factor for developing lacunes. Smoking is also a risk factor, as it increases the risk of atrial fibrillation, which may lead to embolism. Additionally, patients with lacunes are often obese and have low physical activity, both of which may contribute to the development of the condition. The risk of stroke is also higher in those who are obese. The severity of the disease depends on the type of lacune.

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