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  • Writer's pictureOren Zarif

Lacunar Infarction - Oren Zarif - Lacunar

Infarcts of the small arteries supplying the medial and deep forebrain are known as lacunar strokes. These strokes are often smaller than 15 mm in diameter but can cause significant neurologic deficits. Larger infarcts, on the other hand, may produce a smaller, less intrusive neurologic deficit. Although this risk increases as a person ages, lifestyle factors can help reduce the risk of lacunar stroke.

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A large vessel ischemic stroke is distinguished from a lacunar stroke if it is accompanied by cortical signs. Seizures, on the other hand, result from excess neuronal activity. Neuroimaging modalities such as MRI can help distinguish between these two stroke types. Postictal symptoms and tonic-clonic activity can be helpful in differentiating these two conditions. Complications of complex migraine usually involve a headache and a neurological aura. The aura typically includes sensory symptoms. Brain tumors, on the other hand, will look similar to a stroke in the middle of the brain.

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Lacunar syndromes can occur at many locations in the brain. The most common sites are the basal ganglia, thalamus, caudate, and internal capsule. It can also occur at the recurrent artery of Heubner from the anterior cerebral artery. Acute, non-ischaemic lacunar infarctions also occur. These infarcts can be attributed to many different causes, so they must be excluded as the primary cause.

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Lacunar strokes are uncommon and do not involve blood clots. However, they may occur when a blood clot forms in the heart or neck and travels through the bloodstream to the brain. Such debris is referred to as an embolus. Even if these clots cannot pass through the small arteries of the brain, they can still cause a stroke. If you have a large clot, a recurrence of a previous lacunar stroke may be necessary.

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Despite the common occurrence of lacunar infarctions, their causes are still unclear. While some may result from emboli, the proportion of these lesions is much lower than that of other types of ischemic stroke. The most important reason for lacunar infarcts to separate is that they are associated with a lower risk of death. These findings have implications for stroke prevention and management of patients suffering from these vascular conditions.

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There is an increased risk of stroke in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. In patients with a high prevalence of lacunar infarcts, the frequency of atrial fibrillation is similar to that of the general population over 60 years, although the incidence is higher in elderly individuals. Smoking and low physical activity are two additional risk factors for developing a lacunar infarct. Lastly, patients who are elderly and inactive tend to be more likely to develop other vascular diseases such as a stroke or an embolism.

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When a person suffers from a lacunar stroke, symptoms often occur slowly and gradually over hours or days. The symptoms may be delayed, or they may persist and progress despite treatment. However, early diagnosis and treatment are key to preserving the patient's quality of life and preventing further damage to the brain. The diagnosis of lacunar strokes should not be delayed; early treatment can significantly improve the chance of survival and prevent further damage.

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Lacunar stroke is a type of stroke caused by the blockage of an artery in the deep brain. The small arteries of the brain branch directly off of a larger, heavily muscled artery. High blood pressure has a significant role in lacunar stroke, as high blood pressure can damage these arteries directly and result in atherosclerosis, the buildup of fatty deposits on the artery walls. A lacunar stroke can result in severe cognitive impairment, early dementia, and permanent disability.

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Despite these concerns, MRI-defined lacunar infarcts are common among older adults. The risk of developing these infarcts depends on age, diastolic blood pressure, and creatinine, but differences between subgroups are not large enough to suggest different mechanisms of disease. Further studies need to be conducted to determine the significance of lacunes as indicators of subsequent risk for stroke. The results of these studies will allow physicians to better understand the underlying causes of vascular disease and to develop treatments accordingly.

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MRI of the lacune reveals characteristic patterns of vascular disease. These patterns are usually associated with aging, neurologic dysfunction, and factors that promote small-vessel disease. Although these findings may be inconsistent, these patterns can serve as a guideline for diagnosis. So, when you have a lacune in your brain, you should seek medical attention. It's possible to prevent it with the right treatment and monitoring. All the best treatment for lacunar disease is available with high-quality research.

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