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Ischemic Stroke - Oren Zarif - Ischemic


Ischemic stroke occurs when blood vessels in the body are blocked or narrowed by plaque. Some common causes of cardiac ischemia include high blood pressure and heart attack. In addition, brain ischemia may occur as a result of shock, low blood pressure, or conditions affecting the autonomic nervous system. Heart attacks can also slow or stop blood flow, resulting in cerebral ischemia. Other causes of ischemic stroke include a heart attack or other events such as a blood clot.

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The ischemic condition can be painful or innocuous. The symptoms of ischemic stroke depend on the location of the ischemia. Some forms of ischemia may result in surgery to widen the arteries or medications to thin the blood. Some people may not even experience symptoms. A blood test may be required to rule out other serious conditions. In addition to proper diagnosis, prevention of ischaemia is vital to a healthy life.

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Ischemic strokes are often accompanied by no obvious symptoms. However, people with silent ischemia may still experience chest discomfort without any warning. Those who have diabetes are especially vulnerable to silent ischemia. Diagnosing silent ischemia may require an exercise stress test or a Holter monitor (a device that records the heart's rhythm and electrocardiogram continuously for 24 hours). However, symptoms can vary widely between individuals.

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Coronary artery disease is another common cause of ischemia. It can also occur because of thrombus formation on atherosclerotic plaque. A thrombus forming on the plaque or a coronary spasm results in ischemia. Eventually, the thrombus will dissolve and blood flow will return to normal. The condition is caused by a change in supply and demand. If ischemia is severe, the symptoms can be life-threatening.

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The duration and severity of myocardial ischemia varies greatly. The time course and severity of ischemia affect the extent of the changes to the heart muscle. In the first few minutes of ischemia, coronary artery occlusion results in a drop in coronary venous oxygen saturation and a decrease in ATP production. A progressive rise in LV end-diastolic pressure and a decrease in systolic pressure. In severe cases, systemic hemodynamic changes occur, depending on the severity of the ischemia and the amount of the left ventricular muscle affected. Within two minutes, significant electrocardiographic ST-segment changes occur. Chest pain, a loss of oxygen, and a reduced rate are common signs of ischemic heart disease.

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Ischemic heart disease is common and affects large proportions of the population in developed and developing countries. In the United States, approximately 15.4 million people age 20 and older are affected by this disease. That's about 6.4% of the population. In Europe, ischemic heart disease accounts for 4 million annual deaths, representing a substantial percentage of the total deaths. In both countries, treatment for ischemic heart disease has improved over time.

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Ischemic heart disease results in reduced blood flow to the heart. This condition can lead to heart attack, angina pectorum, and serious abnormalities of the heart rhythms. Treatment for ischemic heart disease is focused on improving blood flow to the heart muscle, which can include angioplasty or medications. Lifestyle changes are also essential in treating ischemia. They can make or break your heart's ability to pump blood effectively.

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Studies of infarct size and location can be useful in identifying ischemic heart disease. Using ultrasound, CT scan, or PET scanning, ultrastructures can reveal early ischemic changes. However, electron microscopy requires very fresh tissue and has a large sampling error. Even with modern technology, small areas of necrosis can be identified. Furthermore, experiments are helpful in limiting the size of an infarct.

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In many experimental models of ischemic heart disease, glycogen loss is evident as early as 5 minutes after occlusion. Although frozen sections are not readily available for large animal models, they can be used to evaluate the extent of ischemic damage. Moreover, non-aqueous fixatives, such as paraffin-embedded tissue, can preserve glycogen in the myocardium. In addition, giant sections of heart tissue can provide a detailed cross section of the heart.

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When the heart requires more oxygen and nutrients, ischemia occurs when it cannot supply enough blood to meet the increased demand. Coronary artery disease is one of the leading causes of this supply problem. The buildup of plaque inside the coronary artery narrows the artery too much, preventing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. Symptoms of ischemia include angina, fainting, and chest pain. Ischemic stroke is life-threatening.

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