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Ischemic Encephalopathy - Oren Zarif - Ischemic


What is ischemic encephalopathy (IEC)? IEC is a branch of medicine that focuses on the effects of blocked blood vessels. It is a life-threatening condition where the blood flow in the brain is decreased or stopped entirely. It is most often caused by a cardiac arrest and symptoms may occur rapidly or be brief. However, if a significant period of time passes before the blood flow is restored, the brain may be damaged permanently. Although reperfusion is necessary to protect brain tissue, it may be damaging if the blood flow is not restored immediately.

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A number of factors can cause ischemia, including a thrombus on an atherosclerotic plaque or a coronary spasm. In either case, the ischemic condition will resolve if the thrombus dissolves or the coronary spasm relaxes on its own. Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of death worldwide and can be treated successfully with medications and lifestyle modifications.

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Some people may not show any symptoms, such as shortness of breath or chest pain. However, those who have experienced a heart attack before may not have symptoms of this type of heart failure. If this is the case, your doctor may want to perform a cardiac stress test or conduct an exercise stress test to diagnose silent ischemia. A Holter monitor, a device that records your heart rate and rhythm continuously for 24 hours, can also help identify this condition.

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Although ischemia can be silent, some people may experience changes in heart rhythm as a result of it. This condition can also lead to arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and ventricular arhythmia. If your heart isn't receiving enough blood, you may even faint. In some cases, people may even feel faint or experience chest pain. The symptoms of myocardial ischemia can occur over a long period of time or occur suddenly when an artery becomes blocked.

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Insufficient blood flow in the heart can lead to heart attack and death. This condition can occur anywhere in the body, from the heart to the intestines. Ischemia can result in heart attacks and strokes. There are several types of ischemia: cardiac ischemia (insufficient blood flow to the heart) and mesenteric ischemia (restricted blood flow to the intestines). Ischemia is a medical emergency.

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Despite its severity, many patients with ischemic heart disease cannot exercise. Therefore, the standard stress electrocardiographic criteria used for the diagnosis of CHD have been enlarged to include non-exercise modalities such as echocardiography stimulated with pharmacological vasodilators. Inducible ischemia may also be associated with severe angina and meet the criteria for the cardiovascular disability listing. The presence of greater than 50% left mainstenosis in two native arteries, and more than 70 percent proximal/midenoses in both arteries, are all indicators of severe CHD.

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If you think you've suffered from ischemia, you need to seek medical attention immediately. There are two main types of strokes, ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic stroke is more likely to occur when the artery supplying blood to the brain becomes blocked. This blockage prevents blood flow to the brain, and causes brain cells to die. This is not an uncommon condition, but it's important to seek medical care immediately if you notice symptoms.

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Treatment for ischemic encephalopathy depends on the underlying causes of the condition. Often, high blood pressure or atherosclerosis are associated with ischemic stroke. The treatment of these conditions aims to improve blood flow to the heart, and reduce the burden on the heart. Blood-thinning drugs and oxygen can be used to improve blood flow. Painkillers can also be used to relieve symptoms. Some patients may require rehabilitation to regain function.

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In experimental models, glycogen loss is detectable as early as 5 minutes after occlusion. This can be confirmed through PAS staining in frozen sections. However, frozen sections in larger animal models are not practical. Non-aqueous fixatives are necessary to preserve glycogen in the myocardium. Giant sections of paraffin-embedded tissue provide an adequate view of the entire cross section of the heart.

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