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Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy - Oren Zarif - Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a decrease in cerebral perfusion caused by a mismatch between cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism. Its final pathway to cerebral cell death is similar regardless of the underlying cause, but the specifics of each type of insult vary. In this article, we will discuss the symptoms, pathophysiology, and treatment of HIE.

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The mortality rate in this syndrome ranges from one in eight live births in developed countries. The severity of the condition varies, and a significant proportion of affected infants die before their second birthday. The underlying pathologic events are largely related to impaired cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain. Supportive medical therapy was once the sole option for treating HIE. But today, experimental treatments are being developed to address the underlying causes of HIE, including the role of hypothermia.

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In infants, MRI has been used to identify the presence of acute HIE. This encephalopathy may lead to a variety of neurodevelopmental and motor disabilities. However, current research on HIE severity and HRV are inconsistent. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of HIE on HRV. This is especially true in infants who survive HIE. If you're thinking of getting a baby or toddler for adoption, you might want to take some precautions.

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The cause of HIE is still unclear. There are other causes of the condition, including infections, a specific genetic syndrome, or metabolic syndromes. While there is one definitive cause, HIE often occurs in newborns. Some symptoms overlap with other neurological conditions, such as hypoxia and perinatal asphyxia. Ultimately, you'll need to determine the cause of HIE in order to determine the proper treatment.

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The timing of the HIE injury is vital for effective neuroprotective therapies. Moreover, studies suggest that stem cell therapy can reverse some of the symptoms and improve cognitive function. In fact, stem cell therapy has improved cognitive function in infants with mild to moderate cases of HIE. Moreover, a combined therapeutic hypothermia and stem cell therapy has been shown to improve the outcome of HIE in this condition.

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HIE is a serious birth complication and affects 1 to 2.5 live births in developed countries. Infants affected by HIE have significant neurological disabilities. Around 60% of HIE children will develop mental retardation, epilepsy, or cerebral palsy. This condition can be fatal. If left untreated, the effects of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy can last for life.

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Seizures occur in many infants with significant HIE. Seizures increase with more severe hypoxia-ischemia. Seizures have been linked to neurodevelopmental outcomes, and repeated seizures should be treated immediately. The use of barbiturates and benzodiazepines in treating HIE has been controversial. They may cause cognitive and behavioral changes in infants and may even be harmful.

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Early recognition of the symptoms of HIE is important for early diagnosis, which helps rule out other causes of encephalopathy. Recognition of HIE also facilitates earlier treatment. In most cases, treatment is supportive. If the symptoms occur during pregnancy, the baby may have a lower chance of developing hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. If this happens, the infant may suffer permanent mental and physical disabilities.

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After newborn hypoxia, the brain is permanently damaged. Therapeutic hypothermia can help reduce the long-term effects of HIE. Aside from hypothermia, several neuroprotective agents are now in clinical trials. The treatment of hypoxia is dependent on the specific type of HIE and the severity of its effects. In addition, medications can be used to treat hypoxia-induced seizures. The onset of symptoms can take several weeks.

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