Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in Newborns - Oren Zarif - Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
A newborn with hypoxic ischemic encephalpathy has a poor prognosis. MRI and persistently abnormal EEG are two of the most important indicators. MRI results show severe injury. Although the exact cause of the encephalopathy is not known, the infant's condition must be closely monitored. There are also other causes of the condition, such as problems immediately after birth or premature delivery.
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Regardless of the cause of the hypoxic ischemic encephalopathic syndrome, prevention is key. The simplest way to prevent HIE is to avoid exposure to asphyxia during pregnancy. However, knowing the symptoms and risk factors for this condition can help parents plan accordingly. One important thing to know is the terminology for HIE. It's important to know the difference between a brain lesion and a brain defect. By understanding the difference between these terms, you can better understand whether your baby is suffering from hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.
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A hypoxic-ischemic insult to the brain sets in motion a series of intraneuronal events. These events may ultimately lead to cell death, although it's not always clear that this will occur. Multiple short seizures in newborn animals do not necessarily result in neuronal loss. However, they do cause morphologic changes. Moreover, they result in lower seizure thresholds in later life.
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Although the causes are not well understood, there are several possible ways hypoxic ischemic encephalopathic syndrome can affect a newborn's brain. If left untreated, this condition may result in disability. While the severity of the effects depends on the duration of oxygen deprivation, the brain damage caused by HIE can range from mild to permanent. Symptoms of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy may result in death, disability, or mental retardation.
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Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious complication of birth, affecting 1 to 8 neonates per thousand live births in developed countries. While supportive medical therapy has been the standard of care for infants with HIE, complementary therapies have made their way into clinical practice. Hypothermia is one of the two treatments being studied in newborns. Various other treatments are available.
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Moreover, perinatal HIE has been called perinatal asphyxia, and some prefer the term neonatal encephalopathy. Although the precise cause of HIE is not known, it can cause severe disabilities for a child. Approximately 60% of infants with HIE will develop mental retardation, epilepsy, or cerebral palsy. However, if it is detected in a newborn, a perinatal HIE may occur.
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As early recognition of HIE is important, treatment can begin immediately. Early application of therapeutic hypothermia can improve EEGs and MRIs. Similarly, children with severe acidosis and low Apgar scores are likely to have a good outcome. But the right treatment should be started early. Even the earliest treatment is supportive and preventive. A doctor should immediately monitor the child's condition and determine whether any medications are needed.
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In addition to brain damage, perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies affect the liver and lungs. These problems often result from a compromised umbilical cord, which can limit oxygen and blood flow to the brain. In a newborn, HIE can cause irreversible damage to the brain. In a severe case, the child could die within minutes. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy may also lead to other issues such as respiratory problems and bowel malfunction.