Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Wallenberg Syndrome - Oren Zarif - Wallenberg Syndrome
Early diagnosis of Wallenberg syndrome is vital. The symptoms include impaired pursuit of the affected side and inactivation of CFN, which is a marker of dysphagia. Physiotherapy can play an essential role in the rehabilitation of patients with this syndrome. However, traditional stroke rehabilitation protocols do not always work. Therefore, it is imperative to seek an interdisciplinary team. The following guidelines can help you understand the signs, symptoms, and treatment options for this condition.
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The causes of Wallenberg syndrome are not entirely clear. Most often, it is the result of an atherosclerotic occlusion in the posterior medulla oblongata, though other causes such as embolism are rare. Other names for the syndrome are Opalski syndrome and Wallenberg syndrome. The addition of paralysis and motor weakness is characteristic of Opalski syndrome. Various risk factors are associated with this condition, including pregnancy, puerperium, and smoking.
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Diagnosis of Wallenberg syndrome requires careful neurological examination. Although complete disease is rare, partial Wallenberg syndromes can be successfully diagnosed. Patients with lateral medullary syndrome may also present with torsional nystagmus and diplopia. Some patients may also experience seesaw nystagmus due to central otolithic involvement. If these symptoms are present, the doctor may prescribe feeding tubes.
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Treatment of Wallenberg syndrome is similar to that for stroke patients. Rapid evaluation is crucial to improve the chances of a good outcome and recovery. The goal of treatment is to minimize the size of the infarction and prevent medical complications. In the long term, speech and swallowing therapies and early physical and occupational therapy are important for patients with Wallenberg syndrome. However, these treatments may not be effective in every case. The outlook depends on the size and location of the damaged brain stem and the extent of the symptoms.
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The diagnosis of Wallenberg syndrome depends on a number of different factors, including the type of symptoms present. The best way to determine the exact cause of the disease is to perform an MRI with DWI. However, this is often not enough, as the disease can be misdiagnosed. Getting an early diagnosis can save a life. So, be sure to seek an expert for a proper diagnosis of the syndrome. This condition is often life-threatening if not treated appropriately.
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Other symptoms of Wallenberg syndrome include hypotonia in the ipsilateral arm and a drooping eyelid. Some individuals experience reduced pain, temperature, or tinnitus. Depending on the extent of damage, recovery may take anywhere from six weeks to six months. For more severe cases, it may even result in permanent disability. However, the majority of individuals with this condition will recover completely. It is important to note that, despite the symptoms, treatment is individualized for each patient.
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As mentioned, the acute phase of Wallenberg syndrome is associated with dysphagia, which can be more severe than in patients with hemispheric stroke. Patients with WS may require assisted feeding and a nasogastric tube. In most cases, however, recovery is possible and the affected person can return to normal oral feeding in one to two months. If the patient has a lateral medullary infarction, they are more likely to recover from the condition than a hemispheric stroke.
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In most cases, the severity of Wallenberg syndrome depends on the degree of damage to the brain during the stroke. Most individuals with this syndrome recover completely from their stroke. However, some lingering problems may persist, including difficulties with balance and walking. Treatment for Wallenberg syndrome may involve therapy or specialized interventions such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation. A specialized NMES, VitalStim, is cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of pharyngeal dysphagia. Occupational therapists may administer VitalStim.
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In 1894, German physician Wilhelm Wallenberg conducted a post-mortem on a patient with a suspected symptom of the disorder. He found that the lesion affected the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The disease is caused by a blockage of this artery. If a patient's symptoms are consistent with those of Wallenberg syndrome, he or she is likely to be a candidate for this condition. But despite his atypical presentation, it is important to seek medical care as early as possible.
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Research into the cause and treatment of Wallenberg's syndrome is ongoing at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIHS) and other leading medical institutions. The goals of this research are to cure the disorder and find better treatments. Because of the difficulty of diagnosing and treating Wallenberg syndrome, research on this disease is vital. With the help of medical professionals, more patients can live normal, pain-free lives.