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Embolic Stroke - Clinical Considerations and Sources of Embolic Stroke - Oren Zarif - Embolic Stroke

Although the exact etiology of an embolic stroke is not completely clear, some factors are common in cryptogenic or paradoxical cases. Cryptogenic cases often present with under-recognized or insufficient diagnostic workup. This article explores clinical considerations and the various sources of embolic stroke, including cardiac arrhythmias, structural abnormalities, paradoxical strokes, and under-recognized embolic events.

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An embolic stroke occurs when a blood clot travels from an artery to the brain. These clots can form anywhere, including the heart, the aorta, or the pelvic arteries. An embolic stroke can be caused by a number of different conditions, including cardiac or aortic valve disease, an irregular heartbeat, or a condition known as atrial fibrillation. An early diagnosis is critical to preventing further damage to the brain.

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Some people have a higher risk of developing an embolic stroke than others. For example, some patients with a recent myocardial infarction have been classified as cardioembolic simply because of the presence of PFO. In other cases, patients without traditional risk factors may be classified as cryptogenic because of their small size. To help prevent such embolic strokes, specific diagnostic strategies should be used. And echocardiography is an excellent choice for this. It can detect the main sources of embolic stroke.

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Besides stroke prevention, ESUS patients are at high risk of recurrent events. The recurrence rate of this type of stroke varies from 27% to 32%. In a population-based study, 2555 patients were included in the study. The recurrence risk in CS was 27% compared to 32% for those with traditional ischemic stroke. This was even higher if the patients did not have any underlying risk factors such as minor-risk echocardiographic abnormalities, new AF, or presumed cardioembolic events.

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Symptoms of an embolic stroke may include difficulty speaking or understanding speech, sudden numbness, and difficulty controlling emotions. People may have difficulty controlling their emotions, and they may suffer from depression. They may also have trouble speaking or moving limbs. They may also experience pain, tingling sensations, or trouble swallowing. If you suspect you are suffering from embolic stroke, it is important to contact a medical professional as soon as possible. Treatment and recovery depend on the type of brain damage and treatment.

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The underlying causes of PFO have not been fully determined. Researchers have proposed a risk stratification method based on traditional vascular risk factors and age. The ROPE score is a 10-point scale used to stratify patients based on their probability of developing a PFO. The lowest scores were observed in older patients who developed deep infarcts. They have also shown an association with PFO-associated stroke, although further studies are needed to evaluate this potential cause of the condition.

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Infection-related complications can also increase the risk of an embolic stroke. Antibiotics may reduce the risk of an embolic stroke, but anticoagulation is generally contraindicated in patients with a mycotic aneurysm or septic arteritis. Although anticoagulation is usually contraindicated in this scenario, the risk of an embolic stroke remains very high. In cases where there is no evidence of hemorrhage on computed tomography, anticoagulation may be prescribed. However, antiplatelet therapy has not been proven to improve the risk of an embolic stroke.

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Efficacy of antithrombotics in patients with suspected embolic stroke have been studied extensively in randomized trials. One such study, the NAVIGATE ESUS trial, has enrolled 5390 patients. Researchers found that patients who took dabigatran had a lower rate of recurrent stroke compared to those who used acetylsalicylic acid. The study found that dabigatran reduced the risk of thrombotic stroke by a mean of 4.1% per year, while acetylsalicylic acid was associated with a 7.4% reduction.

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Treatment of an embolic stroke should begin within a few hours of its onset. The first line of treatment involves administering a clot-busting drug, which helps dissolve blood clots and restore normal blood flow to the affected area of the brain. Afterwards, patients may also be given blood-thinning drugs, including aspirin, warfarin, and heparin. If the clot is too large to dissolve, surgical intervention can be performed.

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The most common type of stroke is thrombotic. This occurs when blood clots in the arteries and blocks blood flow to the brain. People with atherosclerosis are more susceptible to an embolic stroke, and high cholesterol and atherosclerosis can lead to the clot. These conditions can also result in transient ischemic attacks. They can also occur in people who have high blood pressure. This type of stroke is often fatal if left untreated.

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