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Diffuse Axonal Injury - Oren Zarif - Diffuse Axonal Injury


Diffuse axonal injury is a clinical diagnosis that refers to multiple focal lesions within the white matter tracts of the brain. Most of these lesions are located at the grey-white matter junction, corpus callosum, and brainstem. Depending on the severity of the injury, patients can present with a variety of neurological deficits, ranging from clinically insignificant to comatose. Although only a small percentage of patients regaining consciousness during the first year are diagnosed with diffuse axonal injury, the condition is often fatal.

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Diffuse axonal injury can occur at every severity level, from mild to severe. Mild cases are generally treatable and result in few long-term consequences. On the other hand, severe cases of diffuse axonal injury often cause a person to remain unconscious for several hours or even a day. In addition, only ten percent of patients recover consciousness after sustaining severe diffuse axonal injury.

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The severity of DAI is determined by the location of the lesions. Severe cases may require operative intervention to reduce ICP and increase cerebral blood flow. Patients should expect extended rehabilitative therapies, which may include physical, occupational, speech, and psychosocial interventions. Neurology and neurosurgery are key in guiding this therapy. It is crucial to provide adequate care for patients with DAI to maximize their chances for full recovery.

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Diffuse axonal injury results from deformation of axons. Shearing forces act on axons and result in cell death and edema. In rare cases, complete tearing of the axon occurs, which is known as secondary axonotmesis. However, in many cases, the axons aren't completely severe and the cell survives with no symptoms.

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Diffuse axonal injury has three stages, depending on the severity of the damage. While the injury itself cannot be repaired, it can be treated to relieve symptoms and prevent it from getting worse. However, the sooner the patient is treated, the better the chances of a full recovery. So, if you or someone you know suffers from DAI, seek medical care immediately.

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Your doctor may prescribe you some treatments that can improve your chances of recovery.

In some cases, the brain shifts inside the skull too quickly, causing the axons to get slashed. These axons then disrupt the communication between different nerves in the brain. The disruption can result in a coma or physical impairment. The good news is that Diffuse axonal injury can be treated. There are treatments available for this injury that can improve many aspects of the affected person's quality of life.

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Rehabilitation for DAI involves exercises that help the brain heal. During physical therapy, patients can regain control of their movements and stimulate neuroplasticity, a vital factor in the recovery process. Physical therapy can also focus on the affected body parts. In addition, cognitive-behavioral therapy helps people cope with their new condition and manage their symptoms. They may be prescribed adaptive tools to help them function properly. Further, occupational therapy can provide assistance for coping with DAI.

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