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Diffuse Axonal Injury - Oren Zarif - Diffuse Axonal Injury


Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a debilitating complication of traumatic brain injury. It can affect several areas of the brain and result in impaired motor function. Luckily, there are many treatments available to help diffuse axonal injury patients recover as much as possible.

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Depending on the severity of the injury, therapeutic exercises can help improve the functional abilities of patients. In some cases, occupational therapy may be used to use adaptive equipment to help compensate for the loss of motor control. Cognitive-behavioral therapy can also be used to help the individual cope with the effects of diffuse axonal injury.

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Initially, treatment for diffuse axonal injury focuses on preventing secondary injuries and facilitating rehabilitation. These secondary injuries often result in increased mortality. Depending on the severity of the injury, the patient may also develop cerebral edema, hypotension, or elevated intracranial pressure. In order to avoid these secondary injuries, it is important to provide timely medical care to patients. Physical therapy can help restore control over affected body parts and stimulate neuroplasticity.

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Symptoms may be subtle or pronounced. Patients with diffuse axonal injury may experience multiple focal lesions throughout the brain, typically in the grey-white matter junction, corpus callosum, or brainstem. A CT scan of the brain is commonly done in patients with head trauma. But the imaging test is not sensitive enough to pick up subtle diffuse axonal injury. In some cases, the patient may have a normal CT scan, but there is a significant neurological deficit.

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Diffuse axonal injury is a disorder caused by the traumatic stress of rapid acceleration. Axons are particularly susceptible to this kind of damage because they are located at the grey-white matter junction. In addition, mechanical damage to axon cytoskeletal structure also results in axonal disconnection. In addition to the traumatic impact itself, axons undergo secondary physiological alterations, such as disrupted axolemma and axon transport.

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Diffuse axonal injury is a serious complication of traumatic brain injury, with numerous neurological deficits resulting. It may compromise a person's ability to return to work, socialize, and maintain a good quality of life. Diffuse axonal injury often persists long after the acute phase of treatment. While it may take up to two years for an individual to fully recover, the effects will continue. The patient will experience significant physical and psychological disability, and will gradually return to normal. The neuroplastic nature of the brain makes it possible to gradually rebuild neural connections.

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The mortality rate associated with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is high. Few studies have studied the outcome of patients and identified risk factors. This study aimed to determine sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with mortality and dependence. The patients were diagnosed with DA between July 2013 and February 2014 and evaluated according to the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale. The researchers concluded that diffuse axonal injury is a complication with a poor prognosis.

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The onset of DAI is not instantaneous, but occurs after a few hours after the axon is disconnected. After injury, a calcium influx occurs, but it does not significantly alter Ca-ATPase activity until fifteen minutes or even four hours later. Upon calcium infiltration, the axons lose their microtubules and become compaction-prone. High levels of calcium also activate several lipases that produce inflammatory eicosanoids and promote the invasion of macrophages and neutrophils. These are just a few of the many consequences of DAI.

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Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a devastating result of traumatic brain injury. The damage caused by the injury can result in physical impairment, coma, and multiple secondary effects. However, fortunately, many people with this condition can recover their functional abilities and regain their normal quality of life. Fortunately, many people with DAI can successfully recover from their condition and enjoy their lives. In some cases, the treatment options can even help people recover some of their lost functions.

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