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Causes of Cerebral Ischemia - Oren Zarif - Cerebral Ischemia

There are several types of cerebral ischemia. In the first type, a blood clot blocks a small artery, which is known as thrombotic ischemia. Another type, embolic ischemia, occurs when a clot in one artery travels to another, causing an overall decrease in blood flow to the brain. The last type, focal cerebral ischemia, is more likely to result in a brain infarction.

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If cerebral ischemia occurs for a prolonged period of time, neuronal death is imminent. Within seconds, brain tissue stops functioning and dies. In just 5 minutes, the brain begins to decompose. While traditional theories considered cerebral ischemia to be an exclusively necrotic condition, recent research has shown that neurons within the ischemic penumbra undergo apoptosis. Although the death of these cells is irreversible, neuropathologists have yet to determine a definitive cause of cerebral ischemia.

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Several animal models show that CHOP expression increases after stroke, including MCAo and BCAo in mice. In fact, Chop knockout mice are protected from both types of cerebral ischemia, but their survival after strokes is decreased compared to controls. Moreover, RNA-interference has been shown to partially prevent the cell death following OGD in primary cultured astrocytes. However, CHOP depletion is potentially toxic when it occurs in the context of cerebral ischemia.

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Imaging techniques are available to assess the extent of ischemic brain damage. These include computed tomography and ultrasonography. These imaging methods are relatively sensitive, but may not detect ischemic brain tissue at an early stage. Other neuroimaging techniques are more reliable and have greater sensitivity to detect early signs of cerebral ischemia than ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI, for example, are both capable of differentiating damaged regions at an earlier stage of the ischemic condition. Moreover, they do not require radioactive tracers.

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In addition to heart attacks and strokes, another cause of cerebral ischemia is an untreated heart attack. Untreated heart attacks can lead to a blood clot and slow down blood flow to the brain. People with sickle-cell anemia are more susceptible to blood clots. They tend to have irregular-shaped red blood cells that clot easily. So, if you suspect you have any of these conditions, seek medical attention right away.

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In vivo studies, a method called molecular tracing (tMCAo) has been developed to detect ischemic stroke. This technique allows for the detection of cerebral ischemia by triggering fluctuations in calcium levels. This enables the development of new treatment strategies for cerebral ischemia. So, what are the advantages of tMCAo? There are many benefits of using this method. The technique is inexpensive and is capable of detecting ischemic stroke in the earliest stages.

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Brain physiology is largely determined by a number of factors. One of these is the level of glutamate in the extracellular space. This amino acid promotes Ca2+ entry. This effect may lead to the delayed death of neurons after cerebral ischemia. In addition to its neuroprotective effect, tRPc is also associated with apoptotic proteins. The effects of tRPc on ischemia-induced death are unknown.

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Imaging is essential for accurate diagnosis of cerebral ischemia. Until recently, the role of the neuroradiologist in acute stroke management was peripheral. However, with the development of thrombolysis, the role of the neuroradiologist has been redefined. Proper imaging and interpretation are critical to the success of thrombolysis. To help understand the role of imaging in acute stroke, State-of-the-Art review on neuroradiology in the acute stroke context discusses the latest advances in imaging. Among these techniques, computed tomography is the most commonly used, and has been shown to be accurate.

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