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Causes and Treatments of Cerebral Infarction - Oren Zarif - Cerebral Infarction


Cerebral infarction, also known as ischemic stroke, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted or the blood vessels that supply the brain are compromised. Because the brain receives inadequate blood supply, the cells of the brain cannot receive oxygen or other essential nutrients, leading to their death. There are several causes of cerebral infarction. Listed below are some of the most common. Read on for more information.

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Massive cerebral infarcts typically result in coma and midline shift, impinginging on critical structures. The most effective treatment for a massive cerebral infarct is surgical decompression with hemicraniectomy. Early intervention is necessary to prevent neurological deterioration. Surgical management may involve decompressive hemicraniectomy, duraplasty, or resection of infarcted tissue.

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The most common cause of cerebral infarction is arterial-to-artery embolism, although watershed infarcts are rare. Embolic infarcts associated with plaques are usually wedge-shaped and involve the posterior and middle cerebral arteries. However, some types of infarcts can also be caused by a cerebral embolus. In these cases, the brain can be flooded with blood resulting in a hemorrhagic infarction.

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A small acute hemorrhagic infarct is caused by an embolus that has penetrated a collateral anastomose. The distal branch of the posterior cerebral artery is likely to be involved. Some types of cerebral infarction can be classified as focal ischemic infarction, diffuse infarction, or brainstem infarction. Listed below are symptoms of different types of cerebral infarction, and their associated treatments.

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During acute meningitis, a reduction in blood flow to the brain causes an ischemic stroke. Atherosclerosis, or build-up of fatty plaque inside a blood vessel, can cause cerebral embolism. These clots can travel to the brain, causing an ischemic stroke. In cases where the brain is injured, patients often experience a partial or complete loss of consciousness. If cerebral infarction is not treated quickly enough, it can lead to death or significant neurological sequelae.

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MRI is one way to quickly diagnose a stroke. This technology is used to measure the blood flow in the brain, and can be done at the same time. The patient's symptoms and signs of the ischemic stroke are then classified based on the severity of the ischemic brain injury. The treatment options for cerebral infarction are largely determined by what artery is infected. The patient will be diagnosed using various diagnostic tools, including non-contrast CT brain, angiography, and MRI.

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Some causes of cerebral infarction are internal cartoid artery anomalies, hypertension, and arterial occlusion. The most common cause is hypertension, affecting deep penetrating vessels. Affected areas are the basal ganglia. In this photomicrograph, the artery shows thickening and mild astrocytic gliosis. In a section of the basal ganglia, a cavity has formed within the putamen due to remote infarction.

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In another patient, a 49-year-old male with seizures and loss of consciousness, MRI reveals an infiltrative area of high signal on the T2-weighted MRI. A FLAIR sequence reveals a small infiltrative tumor. On the DWI, MRI, and CT venography show mild gliosis and cortical mineralization. The patient is treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and is recovering.

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Among patients with acute infarct, atrial fibrillation has been associated with increased risk of stroke. This condition disrupts the normal function of the atria, leading to decreased blood flow to the brain. This reduced flow of blood leads to the formation of blood clots, which can cause stroke. The extent of the stroke will determine the symptoms and the time to seek treatment. The sooner the patient receives treatment, the lower the risk of stroke.

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Although the causes of cerebral infarction are unknown, the majority of victims die of complications from the stroke. The embolic material is usually a fragment of atherosclerotic plaque, or a piece of thrombus. Other potential sources of embolic material are non-bacterial or bacterial vegetations on the valves of the heart. Some individuals develop atrial fibrillation and experience an embolic material from an esophageal artery.

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Cerebellar infarcts are usually idiopathic, although they can be hypertension-related. Cavalier King Charles spaniels, Miniature Schnauzers, and brachycephalic breeds are susceptible to global ischemia. Thrombotic agents are commonly used in human medicine to treat cerebral infarct. However, they are not 100% effective in all patients.

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