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Causes and Symptoms of Diffuse Axonal Injury - Oren Zarif - Diffuse Axonal Injury


Diffuse axonal injury is often the result of a car accident. The accelerating and decelerating motion of a vehicle causes microscopic and gross damage to the axons in the brain. It commonly affects the white matter tracts of the brainstem and corpus callosum. Unlike other brain injuries, however, it is often associated with skull fractures. Listed below are the main causes and symptoms of diffuse axonal injury.

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Neurological changes associated with diffuse axonal injury are extensive and can impact the patient's physical, mental and social status. They can also impair their ability to return to work, socially integrate, and maintain a high quality of life. The ramifications of diffuse axonal injury can extend far beyond the initial acute stage of treatment and can last for years. Because of the plasticity of the brain, however, this impairment will improve over time.

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When the axons are disconnected, transport products and cell debris begin to build up at the site. These components result in local swelling and severe compression. Axons that do not recover completely may have secondary axotomy as a result of biochemical factors. Therefore, it is essential to control inflammation in order to minimize the risks associated with TBI. The risk of cerebral compression is also greatly increased by the persistent volume of a given region.

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Once the axons have become swollen and disconnected, they may contribute to additional neuropathologic changes in brain tissue. Although the clinical manifestations of diffuse axonal injury are not well defined, treatment options are available for this condition. Rehabilitation therapy can help regain control of movement by targeting the affected body parts and stimulating neuroplasticity. In addition to physical therapy, patients may undergo cognitive-behavioral therapy.

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Although traumatic brain injuries can cause death, few studies have investigated the mortality and morbidity of patients with diffuse axonal injury. In addition to identifying risk factors, few studies have evaluated the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of patients with diffuse axonal injury. In a study published in July 2013, 78 patients with DAI were included. A total of 78 patients were evaluated, and the majority achieved a GOS-E classification that was consistent with independent living. The remainder (29.4%) required continued rehabilitation and continued care after the accident.

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Diffuse axonal injury is characterized by multiple focal lesions located in the grey-white matter junction, the corpus callosum, and the brainstem. Non-contrast CT of the brain is the standard imaging procedure for patients with head trauma, however, it does not detect subtle DAI. Patients with DAI may still experience significant neurological deficit, even after the CT scan. If the symptoms are not treated promptly, the patient may develop a traumatic brain injury.

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While most people who have suffered from Diffuse axonal injury do recover from their injuries, their quality of life may be impaired. While this type of injury is difficult to detect using CT or MRI scans, many patients are able to regain their ability to perform daily tasks. Often, Diffuse axonal injury can lead to coma and physical impairment. It is important to note that Diffuse axonal injury is caused by a combination of factors.

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