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An Overview of Cerebral Ischemia - Oren Zarif - Cerebral Ischemia

Cerebral ischemia is an ailment affecting a portion of the brain. It is caused by a temporary deficiency in the flow of oxygen to brain cells. When brain cells go without oxygen for an extended period of time, severe damage results, often leading to brain tissue death, a condition known as cerebral infarction. Patients suffering from brain ischemia may experience a wide range of symptoms, ranging from mild to severe and lasting from seconds to minutes. The condition is also sometimes referred to as a transient ischemic attack.

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There are several possible causes of cerebral ischemia, including atherosclerosis, trauma, and severe infections. Some of these causes are cardiac-related, such as ruptured blood vessels. Other causes include trauma or a blood clot. An embolism, a small piece of blood clot, can cause focal ischemia. Symptoms of cerebral ischemia vary from person to person, but they are usually indicative of a larger problem.

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The primary audience for this book is clinicians and scientists. However, it is relevant for anyone with an interest in cerebral ischemia, including patients and caregivers. It is a comprehensive resource for all who care for a person with cerebral ischemia. It is also useful for anyone interested in understanding the mechanisms and treatment options of cerebral ischemia. The goal of the book is to provide a comprehensive overview of the condition, its treatment, and the consequences.

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There are many causes of cerebral ischemia, but the most common is a heart attack. Untreated heart attacks slow down blood flow to the brain and can lead to a blood clot. People with congenital heart defects are particularly susceptible to blood clots and have an increased risk of cerebral ischemia. A disease affecting hemoglobin, known as sickle cell anemia, can also lead to cerebral ischemia.

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The brain is especially susceptible to ischemia, and complete interruption of blood flow triggers the death of vulnerable neurons. Similarly, twenty to forty minutes of ischemia is enough to kill cardiac myocytes and kidney cells. Because brain tissues have a high metabolic rate, their prominent vulnerability makes them particularly susceptible to ischemia. In humans, the brain constitutes 2.5% of body weight and accounts for approximately 25% of basal metabolic rate, making it 3.5 times higher than those of other primate species. This is because central neurons rely on glucose for nearly all of their energy needs.

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The results of the study also revealed selective neuronal injury in the frontal, temporal, and parietal neocortex. The extent of ischemia differed amongst the deep and superficial layers of the cortex. In addition, the inferior blade of the dentate gyrus was more vulnerable, presumably due to its proximity to the ventricles. These findings suggest differences in connectivity and intrinsic metabolism of these areas.

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Thrombolytic agents are one of the most common treatments for cerebral ischemia. However, they are not without risk, and there is a three-hour therapeutic window for using thrombolytic agents. In addition, other therapeutic strategies for cerebral ischemia include neuroprotection. However, the optimal time to start treatment for cerebral ischemia is within the first three hours of onset. The authors present a comprehensive overview of the disease and its progression from ischemic insult to regenerative apoptosis.

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Diagnosis of cerebral ischemia requires a thorough examination. Various tests are used to determine the severity of the condition. Depending on the findings, doctors may prescribe medication to increase blood flow to the cerebrum. In rare cases, a surgeon may be necessary to remove blood clots from the brain. While it's hard to pinpoint the exact cause of cerebral ischemia, the treatment options for patients with ischemic stroke vary widely.

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In the initial workup, basic lab tests, including a complete blood count, coagulation factors, and cardiac enzymes, are important. Stat non-contrast head CT is also necessary to rule out a hemorrhage or a mass lesion. Vascular imaging, which focuses on brain blood flow, may be extremely valuable in acute stroke etiology. The loss of gray-white distinction in the cortical ribbon and effacement of sulci is considered early signs of infarction.

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While CT is still the gold standard for diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, other diagnostic tests, such as MRI, may be required. In some cases, delayed CT angiography (DXA), or even a fusion of CT and MRI, can be helpful in guiding endovascular therapy. The latter test is less sensitive and takes longer to perform, but it is more specific than CT. It can also detect large vessel stenosis, which can account for one third of ischemic stroke.

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