Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Animal Models to Study Ischemic Brain Disease - Oren Zarif -
For years, researchers have used animal models to understand the mechanisms of cerebral ischemia and develop therapeutic strategies. The use of animal models has a number of advantages, including the ability to study injury in a reproducible manner with a limited degree of variability. Furthermore, the use of these models has the added advantage of enabling the dissection of potential mechanisms of injury and neuroprotection. This article will discuss some of these advantages and drawbacks of using animal models.
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Two-vessel occlusion (VO2) is the simplest experimental model of forebrain ischemia. This model uses a pharmacological agent to lower arterial blood pressure in a rat's neck and thorax, without completely cutting off the peripheral circulation. Researchers also use a cat model to study cerebral ischemia, which includes occlusive closure of the innominate and left subclavian arteries near the aortic arch. The mammary arteries are also involved in arterial blood pressure.
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The symptoms of cerebral ischemia can vary from mild to severe depending on the severity of the condition. Symptoms may be brief or last for several minutes. The condition is often referred to as transient ischemic attack (TIA) or a mini-stroke. It may cause temporary or permanent damage to brain tissue. This condition may not require immediate medical attention, but the signs and symptoms can cause severe problems. This condition is also associated with a high rate of disability and death.
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In addition to the symptoms of ischemic brain damage, patients with the disease may also experience memory loss. Patients with this disease typically show symptoms of episodic memory impairment, which is the earliest clinical symptom of post-ischemic dementia. An overview of ischemic brain disease is presented in this book, which synthesizes the latest data regarding the causes, symptoms, and therapeutic targets. It is also important to know how brain development and diseases are related.
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Untreated heart attacks can lead to cerebral ischemia if it doesn't respond to treatments. A clot can form, slowing blood flow to the brain and stopping it from reaching it. People with congenital heart defects are particularly susceptible to blood clots. Additionally, hemoglobin, which is the oxygen carrying part of red blood cells, is impaired in sickle-cell anemia. These individuals have irregular-shaped red blood cells that clot easily.
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The brain is particularly susceptible to ischemia, and complete interruption of blood flow to the brain will trigger neuronal death. For this reason, many investigators have combined cardiopulmonary resuscitation with ventricular fibrillation. This combination is usually successful, and patients are able to survive the cardiac arrest. A combination of chest compressions and epinephrine is sufficient to reverse the ischemic state. The brain may be able to recover without any further complications, but a recovery may take up to six to eight weeks.
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The goal of this book is to provide readers with an overview of the most important aspects of cerebral ischemia. Although it focuses on the scientific and clinical aspects of cerebral ischemia, it is also aimed at patients and caregivers who are concerned about this important condition. This book will serve as a valuable tool for the researchers and clinicians in the field. Although the book is written primarily for scientists, it is an essential resource for anyone who wants to learn more about cerebral ischemia.
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Initial workups for suspected cerebral ischemia should include basic laboratory tests such as complete blood count, coagulation factors, EKG, and cardiac enzymes. Stat non-contrast head CT should rule out hemorrhage or a mass lesion. Vascular imaging is particularly valuable when determining the etiology of acute stroke. For example, an acute large vessel occlusion may be easily identifiable on computed tomography.
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In general, global cerebral ischemia is caused by complete cessation of CBF, resulting in selective neuronal necrosis. Early ischemia results in vasogenic edema and cytotoxic edema. Glutamate-mediated neurotransmission leads to increased levels of glutamate in extracellular space and excitotoxicity leads to neuronal death. In addition, cerebral ischemia is associated with tissue acidosis, which is especially important in hyperglycemic states.
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Large animal models of ischemia include invasive surgery, which is often required to study focal ischemia. However, this type of animal model has many limitations, including high variability in injury and physiological response, and significant mortality. Additionally, large animal models require different anesthetic regimens and may be inconclusive. Also, public animal welfare issues arise when using large animals in research. The use of these animals is controversial, as many are vulnerable to the risks involved in research.