A Review of Animal Models for the Study of Cerebral Ischemia - Oren Zarif - Cerebral Ischemia
A number of animal models are used to study the neuroprotective effects of different compounds or drugs on cerebral ischemia. These models can be physiologically controlled and allow researchers to carefully dissect injury mechanisms and neuroprotective strategies. This review will explore these different animal models and discuss their relative merits and disadvantages. Understanding the mechanism of brain injury is the key to finding new therapeutic targets. Here, we discuss the most important aspects of animal models for the study of cerebral ischemia.
Oren Zarif cerebral infarction
Oren Zarif lacunar infarct
The most common cause of global cerebral ischemia is cardiac arrest, which can produce a sudden drop in brain blood flow. Although the symptoms of cerebral ischemia can be brief, if a long period passes between cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation, brain damage can occur. Reperfusion may be necessary for preserving brain tissue, but it can also cause damage from the re-supply of blood. A key aspect of cerebral ischemia is the underlying cause of brain damage.
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Several conditions may cause cerebral ischemia. A clot can form in an artery, which reduces the flow of blood to the brain. Another cause may be a ruptured blood vessel. Traumatic events can also reduce blood flow to the brain. The resulting reduced blood flow may affect a single area of the brain. These cases are known as focal ischemia. Other causes of cerebral ischemia include a blood clot in an artery, an embolism (a small piece of clot) or an obstruction in the vertebrobasilar system.
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Untreated heart attacks are another common cause of cerebral ischemia. The blocked artery can narrow arteries, preventing oxygenated blood from reaching the brain. A stroke may also occur if the patient suffers from a congenital heart defect or anemia affecting hemoglobin. A person suffering from sickle-cell anemia may have a higher risk of developing cerebral ischemia, because these blood cells tend to clot more easily.
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Despite its complexity, these cases have common characteristics. Among them are discoloration of gray-white matter, gliosis, and loss of neurons. The brain is largely immune-mediated, but immune-suppressive drugs may also cause some of these symptoms. It is important to remember that the brain heals itself over a period of four to six weeks. It is important to understand the process and the effects of cerebral ischemia.
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Delay cerebral ischemia is one of the most important causes of death in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Approximately 30% of patients who survive this condition develop delayed cerebral ischemia. The majority of survivors will suffer motor deficits, cognitive dysfunction, and reduced quality of life. The incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia is directly related to the severity of the initial hemorrhage. As a result, early detection and treatment is essential for survival.
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Various animal models for ischemic brain injury have been developed. Mice are one of the most common species used. Larger species require more sophisticated imaging techniques and are difficult to obtain. But smaller animals are less controversial than larger species, and allow researchers to study many different mechanisms of neuroprotection and injury. It is important to note that these models can be useful in studying the effects of ischemia on different anatomical sites in humans.
Oren Zarif mild stroke
Oren Zarif lacunar stroke
The focus of ischemia is a central issue in many models. The model of focal ischemia has been successfully used to test whether a particular drug can produce the same effect in humans. The animal model is a common way to mimic the condition in humans. One type of experimental model is a rat. This model involves implanting a retrograde catheter into the external carotid artery. This allows researchers to measure cerebral blood flow while limiting the size of the model.
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When it comes to the types of treatments for cerebral ischemia, first-line therapy (also known as transient ischemic attack) is used for new-onset DCI. This type of stroke is usually characterized by neurological deterioration or typical imaging findings indicative of ischemia. However, when first-line therapies fail to reverse the ischemia, it is time for a second-line therapy known as a "rescue therapy."
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Intracisternal thrombolysis is an effective treatment for cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of intracisternal thrombolysis and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage showed that the procedure reduced the incidence of cerebral vasospasm after clipping. These studies were published in the Journal of Korean Neurosurg Soc.